This solution shows how Chaucer expresses and supports his writing (the poem's meaning) though aspects of his form.
Given your time constrains and the length of the essay, I think it would be a mistake to try and deal with the whole poem. Perhaps you could begin with a few general statements about the poem as a whole, for example, the use of the rhyming couplet form and its significance or Chaucer's overarching organisational form, the frame story (i.e. a story/stories within a story), which comes from a long and venerable European tradition (e.g. 'The Arabian Nights', 'The Decameron' by Boccaccio, the latter of which Chaucer is known to have read when he visited Italy). Although 'The Canterbury Tales' is rightly held to be a domestic piece with a novel, informal tone, Chaucer still ties into traditional and European literary genres.
This would show that you have a good general awareness and then you could move on to analyse specific parts in detail. These could either be parts that particularly attracted you when you read them or areas that I suggest below.
One aspect of Chaucer that is easily obscured by difficulties in the language (as the modern reader ...
Chaucer's The Canturbury Tales is the featured piece.