See the attached file.
2. System A consists of a single ring with 100 stations, one per repeater. System B consists of four 25 stations rings linked by a bridge. If the probability of a link failure is, a repeater failure is, and a bridge failure is, derive an expression for parts (a) to (e). 50 points
a) Probability of failure of system A.
b) Probability of complete failure of system B.
c) Probability that a particular station will find the network unavailable, for systems A and B.
d) Probability that any two stations selected at random will be unable to communicate for systems A and B.
e) Compare values of parts (a) and (b) for .
2. We send a frame of 256 bits. If the probability that a bit changes in transmission is 0.001 and each bit is independent.
a. What is the probability that exactly 6 bits change?
b. What is the probability of no bits changing?
3. If a Signal with a power level of 40 mW is inserted onto a transmission line and the measured power some distance away is 10 mW, calculate the loss of signal strength is decibels.
2. Probability of change of a bit, p = 0.001
Probability that exactly 6 bits change: P(6) = ...
In transmission, possibilities of changes are estimated in the solution.