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I am reading on assessment for special needs and ELL, and I am trying to understand what is the best practices for assessment modification and accommodations response for special education students and English-language learners.

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This can be a very tough topic because overall it depends on the specific child, the level of need, and the level of learning. For example, if a special needs student is just one that has eyesight problems then the assessment can remain that of which you do with your regular education students except you may need to read the material to the student. If the student is severely handicapped or needs physical assistance throughout the day you will need to assess them in a different way because they may not by physically able to take a test.
One option for assessment that is modified to meet the needs of the individual learner is simply personal communication. This option is easy to visualize by walking around. I can also create this with the students so they have some say in what to ask one another. The most important thing is that they understand the concept of the subject and standard being taught. If the student is an ELL student then you may need them to draw a picture or use the best English they can to describe what they know about the topic. You can also pair the ELL students together if you have more than one to ensure they are communicating with one another about the topic and getting a clear understanding. In order to ensure they are learning this way you must make some sort of anecdotal notes on ...