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Writing in Economics

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1. What is plagiarism?

2. What is "reverse plagiarism" and why might Milton Friedman have indulged in it in 1956?

HINT: search for articles on the Chicago oral tradition (I have 2 books on the subject:
R. Leeson ed. _Keynes, Chicago and Friedman_. Chatto and Pickering).

3a. Which sources are academically respectable?

3b.Which sources are not academically respectable?

3c. Which category does Wikipedia fall into?

4. How do economists grade themselves and each other?

Hint: see websites such as this:


5. What is meant by a "peer reviewed article". Why is this process important?

6. Which are the leading peer reviewed academic journals in economics?

See for example the reference to group 1 journals:


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1. What is plagiarism?
Plagiarism means dishonesty by means of unacknowledged, literal copying of material and ideas of other persons as if it were a new and innovative writing. From a different perspective plagiarism refers to submission of images, ideas and words of another person in an academic submission. This may be done by a student or faculty. Further, the plagiarist passes off as his own, the writing of other. The source is not given credit. The plagiarists takes and uses another person's ideas, writings or innovations as if they were his own and does not give the correct source of these phrases.
This is essentially an academic misconduct where the findings, words or simply ideas are used as if these were one's own. It creates the impression that the student or the researcher has done the work even though this is not true. There are cases where others works have been passed of as their own. There are strict guidelines for plagiarism and are followed very precisely by different academic quarters. Acknowledgment of the sources is a must to avoid plagiarism.

2. What is "reverse plagiarism" and why might Milton Friedman have indulged in it in 1956?
In reverse plagiarism there is attribution without copying or there is palming off another's writing as one's own. Milton Friedman might have indulged in it in 1956 because he had the reputation and the pre-eminence required to claim that his work had been plagiarized even though the reverse was the case.
Consider common classroom reverse plagiarism. The student adds citations that were not used in the document. Similarly, the student adds names of books to the bibliography to create an impression that he had read those books even though they had not actually been met. Obviously this is not the type of reverse plagiarism that Milton Friedman practiced.
In 1956 Friedman was a prominent American economist and public intellectual. His word was respected and his contributions to macroeconomics, microeconomics and statistics were respected. He was respected for his originality and his ideas affected public policies. If he carried the writings of a lesser known economist as his own and claimed that the other writer had copied his ideas, his word would stand. It would be accepted that other writer was the plagiarist and not Milton Friedman. ...

Solution Summary

Writing in Economics is discussed in great detail in this solution.