Examine the physical, cultural, political, economic, technological, social, and language differences among Peru, Brazil, and Venezuela. Provide a true comparison of such trends and include all the three nations, including research to validate.© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com September 20, 2018, 4:40 am ad1c9bdddf - https://brainmass.com/earth-sciences/geography/differences-among-peru-brazil-and-venezuela-197606
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The population of Venezuela is 20.2 Million with an ethnic makeup of 70 percent mestizo, and the rest - Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, and African. Only 2 percent of the population is pure-blooded Amerindian. The capital of Caracas, has approximately 3.2 Million people within its city limits. Venezuela is a federal multiparty republic, with a president who is both chief of state and head of government. The cabinet, or Council of Ministers, has twenty-six members. There is a bicameral congress, composed of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, and the judiciary is represented by the Supreme Court. Elections are held every five years. The official language is Spanish. English and a variety of Amerindian dialects are spoken. There is no official religion, but the vast majority of people are Roman Catholic (96 percent). (Source: http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/venezuela.htm)
FROM THE WORLD FACTBOOK
Venezuela was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and New Granada, which became Colombia). For most of the first half of the 20th century, Venezuela was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen, who promoted the oil industry and allowed for some social reforms. Democratically elected governments have held sway since 1959. Hugo CHAVEZ, president since 1999, seeks to implement his "21st Century Socialism," which purports to alleviate social ills while at the same time attacking globalization and undermining regional stability. Current concerns include: a weakening of democratic institutions, political polarization, a politicized military, drug-related violence along the Colombian border, increasing internal drug consumption, overdependence on the petroleum industry with its price fluctuations, and irresponsible mining operations that are endangering the rain forest and indigenous peoples (World factbook(a)).
It is in Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana with the geographic coordinates of 8 00 N, 66 00 W. In terms of size, the area is in total: 912,050 sq km; land: 882,050 sq km; water: 30,000 sq km. Comparatively, it is slightly more than twice the size of California. The climate is tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands with a terrain: Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast. The elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m; highest point: Pico Bolivar (La Columna) 5,007 m. The natural resources are petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds, Overqll, land use: arable land: 2.85%; permanent crops: 0.88%; other: 96.27% (2005). It has several natural hazards: subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts. Environmental current issues include sewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; oil and urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil degradation; urban and industrial pollution, especially along the Caribbean coast; threat to the rainforest ecosystem from irresponsible mining operations (World Factbook(a)).
Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands. Geography is on a major sea and air routes linking North and South America; Angel Falls in the Guiana Highlands is the world's highest waterfall (World Factbook(a)).
Culture and People
The nationality of the people in Venezuela is Venezuelan(s). There are several ethnic groups, including Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African, indigenous people. The religion is mostly Roman Catholic 96%, with Protestant 2%, other 2%. The languages of the people include Spanish (official) and numerous indigenous dialects. Most people are literate, with a literacy rate: definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 93%; male: 93.3%; female: 92.7% (2001 census) (World Factbook(a)).
The population of Venezuela is 26,414,815 (July 2008 est.) with the following age structure: 0-14 years: 31% (male 4,162,862/female 4,034,044); 15-64 years: 63.8% (male 8,299,266/female 8,562,290); 65 years and over: 5.1% (male 602,725/female 753,628) (2008 est.). The median age of the people in Venezuela is 25.2 years; male: 24.6 years; female: 25.8 years (2008 est.). It has a population growth rate of 1.498% (2008 est.). The birth rate: 20.92 births/1,000 population (2008 est.), whereas the death rate is 5.1 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.) (World Factbook(a)).
Venezuela has a net migration rate of -0.84 migrant(s)/1,000 populations (2008 est.). The sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2008 est.). Infant mortality rate is 22.02 deaths/1,000 live births ( male: 25.61 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 18.26 deaths/1,000 live births) (2008 est.). The life expectancy at birth for people in Venezuela is 73.45 years; male: 70.4 years; female: 76.65 years (2008 est.). The total fertility rate: 2.52 children born/woman (2008 est.) (World Factbook(a)).
Health is variable. For HIV/AIDS, the adult prevalence rate is 0.7%; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.). There were 110,000 living with HIV/AIDS (1999 est.) with HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,100 (2003 est.). The major infectious diseases: degree of risk: high; food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A; vector borne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (2008) (World Factbook(a)).
Political: Government and Military
The country name in its conventional long form is the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela; conventional short form: Venezuela; local long form: Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela; local short form: Venezuela. The government type is a federal republic with the capital at Caracas. There are 23 states (estados, singular - estado), 1 capital district* (distrito capital), and 1 federal dependency** (dependencia federal); Amazonas, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias Federales**, Distrito Federal*, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Vargas, Yaracuy, Zulia.The federal dependency consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands. Its independence occurred 5 July 1811 (from Spain) and it became a Constitution on 30 December 1999. The legal system is open, adversarial court system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (World Factbook(a)).
Other Information from World Factbook:
Executive branch: chief of state: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February 1999); Executive Vice President Ramon Alonzo CARRIZALEZ Rengifo (since 4 January 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February 1999); Executive Vice President Ramon Alonzo CARRIZALEZ Rengifo (since 4 January 2008) (World Factbook(a)).
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 3 December 2006 (next to be held in December 2012)
Note: in 1999, a National Constituent Assembly drafted a new constitution that increased the presidential term to six years; an election was subsequently held on 30 July 2000 under the terms of this constitution
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (167 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; three seats reserved for the indigenous peoples of Venezuela)
Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribuna Suprema de Justicia (magistrates are elected by the National Assembly for a single 12-year term)
Political parties and leaders: A New Time or UNT [Manuel ROSALES]; Christian Democrats or COPEI [Cesar PEREZ Vivas];
Communist Party of Venezuela or PCV [Jeronimo CARRERA]; Democratic Action or AD [Henry RAMOS Allup]; Fatherland for All or PPT [Jose ALBORNOZ]; Justice First [Julio BORGES]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Hector MUJICA]; United Socialist Party of Venezuela or PSUV [Hugo CHAVEZ]; Venezuela Project or PV [Henrique SALAS Romer]; We Can or PODEMOS [Ismael GARCIA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business group; VECINOS groups; Venezuelan Confederation of Workers or CTV (labor organization dominated by the Democratic Action)
International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of eight white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band (World Factbook(a)).
Military branches: National Armed Forces (Fuerza Armada Nacionale, FAN): Ground Forces or Army (Fuerzas Terrestres or Ejercito), Naval Forces (Fuerzas Navales or Armada; includes Marines, Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerzas Aereas or Aviacion), Armed Forces of Cooperation or National Guard (Fuerzas Armadas de Cooperacion or Guardia Nacional)
Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 30 months; all citizens of military service age (18-50 years old) are obligated to register for military service (2007)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 6,647,124; females age 16-49: 6,801,133 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 5,280,974; females age 16-49: 5,768,814 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: males age 16-49: 275,323; females age 16-49: 274,106 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (2005 est.) (World Factbook(a)).
More than either Peru or Brazil, Venezuela remains highly dependent on oil revenues, which account for roughly 90% of export earnings, more than 50% of the federal budget revenues, and around 30% of GDP. A nationwide strike between December 2002 and February 2003 had far-reaching economic consequences - real GDP declined by around 9% in 2002 and 8% in 2003 - but economic output since then has recovered strongly. Fueled by high oil prices, record government spending helped to boost GDP in 2006 by about 9% and in 2007 by about 8%. This spending, combined with recent minimum wage hikes and improved access to domestic credit, has created a consumption boom but has come at the cost of higher inflation-roughly 20 percent in 2007. Imports also have jumped significantly. Embolden by his December 2006 reelection, President Hugo CHAVEZ in 2007 nationalized firms in the petroleum, communications, and electricity sectors, which reduced foreign influence in the economy. Although voters in December 2007 rejected CHAVEZ's proposed constitutional changes, CHAVEZ still has significant control of the economy and has indicated he intends to continue to consolidate and centralize authority over the economy by implementing "21st Century Socialism" (World Factbook(a)).
OTHER INFORMATION; World Factbook
GDP (purchasing power parity): $334.6 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $236.4 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 8.4% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $12,200 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.8%; industry: 38.4%; services: 57.8% (2007 est.);
Labor force: 12.37 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 13%; industry: 23%; services: 64% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8.5% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line: 37.9% (end 2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.7%; highest 10%: 35.2% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 48.2 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18.7% (2007)
Investment (gross fixed): 23.7% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget: revenues: $65.83 billion; expenditures: $58.9 billion (2007 est.);
Public debt: 19.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products: corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish
Industries: petroleum, construction materials, food processing, textiles; iron ore mining, steel, aluminum; motor vehicle assembly
Industrial production growth rate: 3.9% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production: 99.2 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption: 73.36 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2005)
Oil - production: 2.802 million bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - consumption: 599,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 2.203 million bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - proved reserves: 79.14 billion bbl (2007 est.)
Natural gas - production: 27.53 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 27.53 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 4.112 trillion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance: $23.23 billion (2007 est.) ...
This solution examines the physical, cultural, political, economic, technological, social, and language differences among Peru, Brazil, and Venezuela. It provides a true comparison of such trends and includes all the three nations and research for validation.