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Applying the First and Second Law of Thermodynamics

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Provide an explanation of the meaning of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Then using the second law, explain why a barrel of oil can be used only once as a fuel source, why can we not recycle high-quality energy resources.

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The first law of thermodynamics as stated by Clausius is quoted as "In all cases in which work is produced by the agency of heat, a quantity of heat is consumed which is proportional to the work done; and conversely, by the expenditure of an equal quantity of work an equal quantity of heat is produced." This is another version of the law of conservation of energy. The meaning of ...

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The solution discusses the 1st and 2nd law of thermodynamics. It also explains why high quality energy sources cannot be used more than once.

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First and second law of thermodynamics

1. For the following processes, state whether the driving force is the first or second law of thermodynamics. The systems are in italics and we are only interested in whether the properties of the system have changed. Explain your choice in 1-2 sentences.

a. Warming up exercises when muscles are worked the cells "burn" more glucose and the oxidation releases energy which is stored as ATP. However only about 50% is stored and the rest increases the temperature of the muscle tissue.
b. You observe the trees in the forest do not grow in straight lines. Forests that were plants by the CCC camps in the Great Depression have the trees plants in long straight rows. Anyone visiting these knows immediately that this is not a natural forest.
2. 12.0L of monoatomic ideal gas at 15◦C and 4atm are expanded to a final pressure of 1.2atm. Calculate ∆U, q, w, and ∆S if the process is:
a. Reversible and isothermal
b. Reversible and adiabatic
i. Prove that for the process in part b ∆S is zero.
c. Irreversible and adiabatically
d. Explain, in 3-4 sentences, why ∆S is different in all three parts
3. The following equation is an equation of state for an imagined gas: . The term accounts for the attractions between the gas molecules. Determine ?

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