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Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel

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Discuss ethanol as a transportation fuel. Identify at least three advantages and three disadvantages of its use. Also, assess the government's policy regarding ethanol and make a recommendation as to whether you feel use of ethanol is a feasible approach to decreasing the amount of oil used to power vehicles.

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Advantages:
? Can be produced domestically from agricultural feedstocks like corn
? Produces up to 50% less pollution than fossil fuels in vehicle use
? It is a renewable energy source

Disadvantages:
? Net CO2 emissions while better than fossil fuel are far from zero and include the environmental cost of crop cultivation including diesel-powered equipment needed during both cultivation and production phases.
? Expense. Ethanol is more expensive to purchase per gallon than gasoline. Ethanol contains less energy than gasoline meaning fuel economy decreases by up to 20-30 percent.
? Takes arable land useful for food crops out of production

Government Policy Regarding Ethanol -- Points to Consider

The government subsidizes ethanol starting with the the Energy Policy Act of 1978, ranging over that time from between 40 and 60 cents per gallon. See below the history of ethanol subsidy legislation.

1978 Energy Tax Act of 1978 $0.40 per gallon of ethanol tax exemption on the $0.04 gasoline excise tax
1980 Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act andthe Energy Security Act Promoted energy conservation and domestic fuel development
1982 Surface Transportation Assistance Act Increased tax exemption to $0.50 per gallon of ethanol and increased the gasoline excise tax to $0.09 per gallon
1984 Tax Reform Act Increased tax exemption to $0.06 per gallon
1988 Alternative Motor Fuels Act Created research and development programs and provided fuel economy credits to automakers
1990 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act Ethanol tax incentive extended to 2000 but decreased to $0.54 per gallon of ethanol
1990 Clean Air Act amendments ...

Solution Summary

Ethanol as a transportation fuel is examined. Three advantages and three disadvantages of its use is determined.

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Guidance to Questions on Alternatives to Petrol Fuels

Need to write a critical review about the attached published article, with respect to the prospects for renewable energy in the transportation sector, can you please help and make it simple as I have read the article over and over again, hopefully about 400 words in total should be enough to answer each point below thanks.

Apologies but this is all I can offer for total credits, unfortunately I have just a part time job and brainmass gives me that opportunity to have things explained a lot more clearer for me to understand, I wish I can offer more but I can't sadly, I ask for 400 words no more, thanks for your support.

Please can you base your review on the following guideline questions:

How have the authors formulated the problem/issue?
Do the authors refer to the work of others that they do not agree with?
What are the key concepts or the main factors or variables discussed?
What are the relationships between these key concepts, factors or variables?
What evidence is lacking, inconclusive, contradictory or too limited?
What, if any, evidence might seem unsatisfactory and why?
In what ways does this article contribute to your understanding of the role of renewables in a sustainable energy system?

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