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STDM, T-1 lines, TDM and FDM

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How does STDM yield more efficient use of the bandwidth?

How many T-1 lines are needed to make up one OC12 line ? Need to see the calculated out to understand this

Explain the differences between TDM and FDM?

See the attached file.

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1. How does STDM yield more efficient use of the bandwidth?
STDM: statistical time division multiplexing:
TDM becomes inefficient when traffic is intermittent because the time slot is still allocated even when the channel has no data to transmit. Statistical time division multiplexing was developed to overcome this problem
For the following reasons, STDM yield more efficient use of the bandwidth.
➢ A system developed to overcome some inefficiencies of standard time division multiplexing, where time slices* are still allocated to channels, even if they have no information to transmit.
➢ STDM uses a variable time slot length and by allowing channels to compete for any free slot space.
➢ It employs a buffer memory which temporarily stores the data during periods of peak traffic. This scheme allows STDM to waste no high-speed line time with inactive channels.
➢ STDM requires each transmission to carry identification information (i.e. a channel identifier).
➢ To reduce the cost of this overhead, a number of characters for each channel are grouped together for transmission.
➢ The scheduler is run once every time slice to choose the next process to run. If the time slice is too short then the scheduler will consume too much processing time but if it is too long then processes may not ...

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The solution discusses how STDM yields more efficient use of the bandwidth.

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