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Networking: Protocols and Access Methods

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1. As the network administrator for a growing firm, you want to design your network to run efficiently now and in the future. You plan to implement a server based Windows Server 2003 network. Although you currently support only 20 users on one floor of one building, management is rumoured to be planning an acquisition that would effectively double your company's network size. Highlight your current and future requirements, and choose the protocols and channel access method best suited to this situation. Then, explain why you chose those protocols and access methods.

2. A local bank just hired you to completely redesign its network. Money is no object, but its database transactions are time-critical, and PCs throughout the bank must be able to access the databases, which are on UNIX systems. Choose the best protocols and channel access method for this situation.

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1. Here we are using the windows server 2003 network. Now if we want to increase the no of users like here in this case we are simply doubling it. For this we will use VLAN method and MACA channel access method. Reason for selecting these protocols is as follows:

VLAN:
VLAN is a logical grouping of network users and resources that administratively defines on a switch port.

By default we can connect only one network address with a switch but by using VLAN concept we can attach multiple networks (router is must). This will be useful while we are extending our bank network as we can further divide our networks into smaller network to minimize the traffic.

The advantages of VLAN will be

a. Reduce broadcasting as we divided network into smaller networks.
b. Increases n/w performance as effectively our network is divided into smaller networks.
c. Increases security because in VLAN we can ensure that particular port is accessed by particular user.

MACA:
The existing Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) method widely used in amateur packet radio on shared simplex packet radio channels frequently suffers from the well-known "hidden terminal problem" and the less well known but related problem of the "exposed terminal." This paper proposes a new scheme, Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (MACA) that could greatly relieve these problems. MACA can also be easily extended to provide automatic transmitter power control. This could increase the carrying capacity of a channel substantially.

In the classic hidden terminal situation, station Y can hear both stations X and Z, ...

Solution Summary

This solution discusses protocols and channel access methods within different corporations.

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LAN access methods

At the heart of a LAN is an access method whereby network nodes share access to the transmission medium. The access method is also known as the MAC protocol (MAC: medium access control). There are essentially 2 access methods: CSMA and token passing. The patriarch of LANs, the Ethernet, uses CSMA with collision detection (CSMA/CD). The wireless LAN uses CSMA with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). CSMA derived from the Aloha protocol, the 1st random access method developed for the Alohanet at the University of Hawaii (1971).

Robert Metcalf and his colleagues at Xerox PARC enhanced CSMA with CD and implemented CSMA/CD in their invention of Ethernet in the mid-1970's. Ethernet was standardized in the early 80's as IEEE 802.3. In competitive effort, IBM invented the token passing method, and implemented it into its mighty Token Ring LAN, standardized as IEEE 802.5 in 1985. The access method determines the throughput and latency performance of a LAN. IBM's Token Ring provably outperformed Ethernet, and thus was expected to dethrone Ethernet as the king of LANs. But Ethernet, for various reasons, has maintained its throne as the king of LANs to this day. And the Token Ring, for various reasons, has been left behind, sadly almost fading away into history.

Research and comparatively analyze Ethernet's CSMA/CD and Token Ring's token passing.

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