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A datagram subnet allows routers to drop packets whenever they need to. The probability of a router discarding a packet is p. Consider the case of a source host connected to a source router, which is connected to the destination router, and then to the destination host. If either of the routers discards a packet, the source host eventually times out and tries again. If both host-router and router-router lines are counted as hops, what is the mean number of

a. Hops a packet makes per transmission?
b. Transmissions a packet makes?
c. Hops required per received packet?

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(a) In each transmission, a packet emitted by the source host makes 1, 2, or 3 hops. The probability that it makes one hop is p. The probability that it makes two hops is p x (1-p). The ...