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Time Value of Money Definition and Several Calculations

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I am having problems understanding the concepts and mathematical formulas of time value of money especially future value, present value and etc...
1. Provide a definition of time value of money.
2. To what extent is it important for financial managers to understand the concept of time value of money? Why? Please explain your reasoning in two or three paragraphs.
If you do not know how to use a calculator for these calculations, use the tables to answer questions 3, 4, 5, and 6.
Brealey, R. A., Myers, S. C., & Allen, F. (2005). Principles of corporate finance, 8th Edition. The McGraw−Hill. Retrieved May 2012 from http://jcooney.ba.ttu.edu/fin3322/Brealey%20Files/Appendix%20A%20-%20Present%20Value%20Tables.pdf
3. Calculate the future value of the following:
a. $150,537.19 if invested for seven years at a 5% interest rate
b. $237,891.22 if invested for eight years at a 3% interest rate
c. $320,891.12 if invested for 10 years at an 11% interest rate
d. $520,520.22 if invested for 13 years with a 13% interest rate
Use Table 2 [http://jcooney.ba.ttu.edu/fin3322/Brealey%20Files/Appendix%20A%20-%20Present%20Value%20Tables.pdf]
4. Calculate the present value of the following:
a. $562,126.17 to be received seven years from now with a 5% interest rate
b. $225,003.21 to be received six years from now with a 6% interest rate
c. $321,567.35 to received five years from now with an 18% interest rate
d. $63,000.05 to be received twelve years from now with a 5% interest rate
Use Table 1 [http://jcooney.ba.ttu.edu/fin3322/Brealey%20Files/Appendix%20A%20-%20Present%20Value%20Tables.pdf]
5. Suppose you are to receive a stream of annual payments (also called an "annuity") of $325,891.12 every year for 12 years starting at the end of this year. The interest rate is 6%. What is the present value of these 12 payments?
Use Table 3 [http://jcooney.ba.ttu.edu/fin3322/Brealey%20Files/Appendix%20A%20-%20Present%20Value%20Tables.pdf]
6. Suppose you are to receive a payment of $437,891.24 at the end of each year for five years. You are depositing these payments in a bank account that pays 15% interest. Given these five payments and this interest rate, how much will be in your bank account in five years?
If you do not know how to use a calculator for these calculations, use the table found on http://www.principlesofaccounting.com/ART/fv.pv.tables/fvofordinaryannuity.htm

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Time value of money is a key concept of financial management. The concept is defined and the importance of the time value of money to financial managers. Also, there are several time value of money problems answered.

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Time Value of Money - Future and Present Values

5. (Computation of Future Values and Present Values) Using the appropriate interest table, answer each of the following questions. (Each case is independent of the others.)

a. What is the future value of $7,000 at the end of 5 periods at 8% compounded interest?
b. What is the present value of $7,000 due 8 periods hence, discounted at 11%?
c. What is the future value of 15 periodic payments of $7,000 each made at the end of each period and compounded at 10%?
d. What is the present value of $7,000 to be received at the end of each of 20 periods, discounted at 5% compound interest?

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