Government often grows to meet the demands of the citizenry and so does the costs associated with that growth. Identify an example of growth that was necessary and provide reasons why. Explain why such expansions are needed to meet the needs of society and how they are funded. These processes sometimes bring harsh criticism? Why? Explain your position in detail. Respond to at least two of your classmates' postings.© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 25, 2018, 9:24 am ad1c9bdddf
One example of government growth that was necessary is the creation of the department of Homeland Security. This department was created in response to the September ...
Oftentimes government has to create programs that are designed to meet the needs of its citizen. Such needs may arise due to various circumstances such as population change, growth, crisis, etc. This solution discusses a branch of government that was created, why it was created, its funding, and its criticisms.
Production, Unemployment and Inflation
1. Suppose that in 2013, the economy produced 10 shirts at $20 each and 5 hamburgers at $5 each. In 2014, the economy produced 15 shirts at $21 each and 10 hamburgers at $6 each.
2. What is the value of real GDP produced in 2014 using 2013 as the base year?
3. What would be the growth in real GDP?
4. Why is there unemployment even when the economy is at "full employment"?
5. What are some "costs of unemployment"?
6. Use the table below:
a. What is the inflation rate from 2010 to 2011?
b. Suppose that you have an income of $30,000 in 2008. How much would you need to be able to have the same standard of living in 2009?
c. What are some of the problems with using the CPI as a measure of standard of living?
7. Explain some limitations of using GDP as an indicator of standard of living (be sure to do some research on your own).
8. According to Okun's Law, if the normal rate of growth of GDP is 3% and the current unemployment rate is 6%, an increase in GDP growth to 4% would cause unemployment to change by what percentage?
9. When total output, income, employment, and trade decline for 6 to 12 months, the economy is in what part of the business cycle?
10. Which has a larger effect on aggregate demand: an increase in government expenditure or an equal sized decrease in taxes? Explain your answer.
11. To eliminate a recessionary gap, what fiscal policy should the government pursue? Be specific.
12. Indicate which of the following is expansionary OR contractionary fiscal policy:
• Increasing income tax
• Bailing out the auto industry
• The purchase of military helicopters
13. Are credit cards or debit cards money? Explain your answer.
14. Assume that the bank holds no excess reserves and that the required reserve ratio equals 10% of deposits. If a customer deposits $5,000, what would be the total increase in checking account balances throughout all banks? Explain the process by which the banking system creates money.
15. In your own words, list the Fed's main policy tools and briefly explain each one.
16. TRUE or FALSE. "When the Fed makes an open market purchase of government securities, the quantity of money will eventually decrease by a fraction of the initial change in the monetary base." Is the previous statement correct or incorrect? Explain your answer.
17. Explain how governments restrict international trade and who benefits as well as who loses from the restrictions.
18. Because wage rates are so low in Africa, why don't Microsoft, Cisco and other major corporations close down their American operations and move to Africa?
19. Consider the foreign exchange market for Japanese Yen and Dollars. Assume a market where the U.S. dollars are on the x axis as shown in the background material. Indicate whether the dollar would APPRECIATE or DEPRECIATE if the following events occur (be sure to explain your answer such as including reference to the demand or supply curve):
a. The interest rate in Japan is lowered.
b. Prices are lower in U.S.
c. Higher US interest rates.
20. What is the effect of a higher exchange rate on exports and imports?
21. (a.) Suppose real GDP was $13.1 trillion in 2013 and $13.3 in 2014, what is the growth rate? (b.) How many years would it take for GDP (gross domestic product) to double (using your answer from part (a)?
22. What are the sources of human capital? Discuss some specific examples.
23. What is the law of diminishing returns? Give an example of what the law of diminishing returns implies.
24. What happens when the government raises taxes and uses revenue to engage in spending?
25. Identify and briefly describe DirectTV and why do you think it will be an interesting focus for your application of macroeconomic ideas?
26. Select three macroeconomic indicators from http://www.investopedia.com/university/releases/ that you feel have the greatest impact on the operations and/or planning for DirectTV
27. Why they are important to the current or future condition of DirectTV.
28. Suppose the U.S. government removed tariffs in your industry. What impact would that have on DirectTV?
29. What are some obstacles DirectTV might face with production in another country?
30. Make an argument FOR free trade. Be sure to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Free Trade.