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    Basic Principles of Stock Options

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    ?Basic Principles of Stock Options
    o What are options and where do they come from?
    o Why are options a good idea?
    o Where and how are options traded?
    o What are the components of the option premium?
    o Where do profits and losses come from with options?

    ?Basic Option Strategies
    o How do you examine the risk and return of an option strategy using a graph? A spreadsheet? An equation?
    o How do you use options to hedge or generate income?
    o How do you take long and short positions?
    o What are covered calls, covered puts, protective puts, put overwriting, fiduciary puts, and synthetic options?

    ? Option Combination and Spreads
    o What are typical strategies to seek trading profit?
    o What is a combination?
    o What are straddles, spreads, strangles, and condors?

    Thank you

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    Basic Principles of Stock Options
    o What are options and where do they come from?
    An option is a contract between a buyer and a seller. The option is connected to something, such as a listed stock, an exchange index, futures contracts, or real estate.
    o Why are options a good idea?
    The two most popular types of options are Calls and Puts. We'll cover calls first. In a nutshell, owning a call gives you the right (but not the obligation) to purchase a stock at the strike price any time before the option expires. An option is worthless and useless after it expires.
    People also sell options without having owned them before. This is called "writing" options and explains (somewhat) the source of options, since neither the company (behind the stock that's behind the option) nor the options exchange issues options. If you have written a call (you are short a call), you have the obligation to sell shares at the strike price any time before the expiration date if you get called.

    o Where and how are options traded?
    The Wall Street Journal might list an IBM Oct 90 Call at $2.00. Translation: this is a call option. The company associated with it is IBM. (See also the price of IBM stock on the NYSE.) The strike price is 90. In other words, if you own this option, you can buy IBM at US$90.00, even if it is then trading on the NYSE at $100.00. If you want to buy the option, it will cost you $2.00 (times the number of shares) plus brokers commissions. If you want to sell the option (either because you bought it earlier, or would like to write the option), you will get $2.00 (times the number of shares) less commissions. The option in this example expires on the Saturday following the third Friday of October in the year it was purchased.
    In general, options are written on blocks of 100s of shares. So when you buy "1" IBM Oct 90 Call at $2.00 you actually are buying a contract to buy 100 shares of IBM at $90 per share ($9,000) on or before the expiration date in October. So you have to multiply the price of the option by 100 in nearly all cases. You will pay $200 plus commission to buy this call.
    If you wish to exercise your option you call your broker and say you want to exercise your option. Your broker will make the necessary requests so that a person who wrote a call option will sell you 100 shares of IBM for $9,000 plus commission. What actually happens is the Chicago Board Options Exchange matches to a broker, and the broker assigns to a specific account.
    If you instead wish to sell (sell=write) that call option, you instruct your broker that you wish to write 1 Call IBM Oct 90s, and the very next day your account will be credited with $200 less commission. If IBM does not reach $90 before the call expires, you (the option writer) get to keep that $200 (less commission). If the stock does reach above $90, you will probably be "called." If you are called you must deliver the stock. Your broker will sell IBM stock for $9000 (and charge commission). If you owned the stock, that's OK; your shares will simply be sold. If you did not own the stock your broker will buy the stock at market price and immediately sell it at $9000. You pay commissions each way.

    o What are the components of the option premium?

    The financial theoreticians have defined the following relationship for the price of puts and calls. The Put-Call parity theorem says:
    P = C - S + E + D
    P = price of put
    C = price of call
    S = stock price
    E = present value of exercise price
    D = present value of dividends
    The premium consists of:
    The total cost of an option.

    The difference between the higher price paid for a fixed-income security and the security's face amount at issue.

    The specified amount of payment required periodically by an insurer to provide coverage under a given insurance plan for a defined period of time. The premium is paid by the insured party to the insurer, and primarily compensates the ...

    Solution Summary

    Basic Principles of Stock Options are examined.