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Analysis of Financial Statements and Efficiency

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1) Draw a scratch-work Balance Sheet for a company with Assets = 100, and describe the leverage of a company where you decide how much leverage the company has. (For example, 90% borrowing, 10% equity---you choose the leverage.)
If your company makes three (dollars) on the assets of 100 ($3 on $100, etc.); and has to pay out 2% on its liabilities, please tell me what the return on equity is. (Use your equity figure for "average equity".).

2) Give me several reasons why a market might not be "efficient". Are markets perfectly efficient? Why or why not?

3) Why is the analysis that a creditor would do different than one that a stock investor might do?

4) Accounting has traditionally relied on assets being valued at historical cost. More and more, though, "fair value accounting" has come to be accepted. In what ways is fair value accounting an improvement on the historical cost method? What are the pitfalls of employing fair value accounting?

5) Considering DR expenses, CR revenues, and the various asset and liability/equity accounts, discuss three ways that a company might try to boost its earnings by treating expenses or revenues as balance sheet items(or vice versa).

6) Whose responsibility is it to produce the financial reports for a company? What does the auditor actually do? Does the controller have any involvement in certifying to the accuracy of the 10-K? What happens if the controller does not agree with the financials? Do auditors attest to the soundness of internal controls of a company?

7) Why is the distinction between operating income and non-operating income important? What is Comprehensive Income? What is Other Comprehensive Income?

8) If a company constantly reports the same kind of extraordinary items on its financial statement, what impression should that give to the user of the company's financial statements?

9) Why is it important to account for Employee Stock Option programs? What do we call it when we try to figure out what earnings per share would be if all the stock options were exercised?

10) Why are there deferred income taxes? If a company has a deferred tax liability on its books, what does that mean happened? Can a company have both a deferred tax asset and a deferred tax liability?

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Please see explanations below and the attached Excel chart for calculations.

1) Here we have:

Asset Amount in $ Liabilities and Shareholders' equity Amount in $
Current Asset 20 Current Liabilities 10
Fixed Asset 80 Long term Debt 40
Equity 50
Total 100 Total 100

Here, I used 50% debt and 50% equity. Therefore the debt to equity ratio is 1:1.

The six Ratios:
(i) Quick Ratio: It's a liquidity ratio that helps to find out company's ability to repay its current debt obligation, is calculated by subtracting inventories from the current assets and then dividing by the current liabilities.
(ii) Inventory turnover ratio: It is an asset management ratio that helps to find out whether company is holding excess amount of unproductive inventory or not, is calculated by dividing sales by inventories.
(iii) Debt Ratio: It is a debt management ratio that helps to find out the weight of debt used in the capital structure of the company, is calculated by dividing total debt by total asset.
(iv) Profit Margin on Sales: It's a profitability ratio that helps to find out the cost efficiency of the company by finding out income per dollar of sales generated, is calculated by dividing net income available to shareholders by sales.
(v) Return on Equity: It's a ratio that helps to find out the amount of return generated by using the equity capital, is ...

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The following posting helps with an analysis of financial statements and efficiency.

See Also This Related BrainMass Solution

Balance Sheets with LIFO consideration

Your company is considering the possible acquisition of ABC Company. Financial statements of ABC Company follow.

Balance Sheet.
2004 2003
Current assets:
Cash $64,346 $11,964
Accounts receivable less allowance
of $750 for doubtful accounts $99,021 $83,575
Inventories, FIFO $63,414 $74,890
Prepaid expenses $834 $1,170
Total Current Assets $227,615 $171,599
Investments and other assets $379 $175
Property, plant, and equipment:
Land and land improvements $6990 $6400
Buildings $63,280 $59,259
Machinery and Equipment $182,000 $156,000
$252,270 $221,659
Less: accumulated depreciation $110,000 $98,000
Net property, plant, and equip $142,270 $123,659
Total Assets $370,264 $295,433

Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
Currentl liabilities:
Accounts payable $32,730 $26,850
Federal income taxes $5,300 $4,800
Accured liabilities $30,200 $24,500
Current portion of long term debt $5,500 $5,500
Total current liabilities $73,730 $61,650
Long term debt $76,750 $41,900
Other long term liabilities $5,700 $4,300
Deferred federal income taxes $16,000 $12,000
Total liabilities $172,180 $119,850
Stockholders' equity:
Capital stock $44,000 $43,500
Retained earnings $154,084 $132,083
Total Stockholders equity $198,084 $175,583
Total liabilities and stockholders equity $370,264 $295,433

Statement of income.
2004 2003 2002
Revenues $578,530 $523,249 $556,549
Cost and Expenses:
Cost of products sold $495,651 $457,527 $482,358
Selling, general, and admininstrative $35,433 $30,619 $29,582
Interest and debt expense $4,308 $3,951 $2,630
$535,392 $492,097 $514,570
Income before income taxes $43,138 $31,152 $41,979
Provision for income taxes $20,120 $12,680 $17,400
Net income $23,018 $18,472 $24,579
Net income per share $2.27 $1.85 $2.43

Partial footnotes: Under the LIFO method, inventores have been reduced by approximately $35,300 and $41,100 at December 31, 2004 and 2003, respectively, from current cost, whichwold be reported under the first in, first out method.
The effective tax rates were 36.6%, 30.7%, and 31.4%, respectively, for the years ended December 31, 2004, 2003, and 2002.

a. Compute the following for 2004, without considering the LIFO reserve:
1. Days' sales in inventory
2. Merchandise inventory turnover
3. Inventory turnover in days
4. Operating cycle
5. Working capital
6. Current ratio
7. Acid test ratio
8. Cash ratio
9. Debt ratio
10. Debt/equity ratio
11. Times interest earned
12. Net profit margin
13. Total asset turnover
14. Return on assets
15. Return on total equity
b. Compute teh ratios above considering the LIFO reserve.
c. Comment on the apparent liquidigy, debt, and profitability, considering both sets of ratios.

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