1. The requirement that only transaction data capable of being expressed in terms of money be included in the accounting records relates to the
a. cost principle.
b. monetary unit assumption.
c. economic entity assumption.
d. both a and b above.
2. A financial statement that reports accounting data at a specific date is the
a. income statement.
b. retained earnings statement.
c. balance sheet.
d. statement of cash flows.
3. Which of the following presents key aspects of the process of accounting in the correct chronological order?
a. Communicating, recording, and identifying
b. Recording, identifying, and communicating
c. Recording, totaling, and identifying
d. Identifying, recording, and communicating
Please see attached.
4. The process of transferring transaction effects into the appropriate accounts is referred to as
5. Transactions are initially recorded in the
a. general ledger.
b. trial balance.
c. general journal.
d. balance sheet.
6. For which of the following accounts is the normal balance a debit?
a. Rent Payable
b. Unearned Rent Revenue
c. Rent Revenue
d. Prepaid Rent
7. Which of the following is false with regard to a general journal?
a. It tracks the increases and decreases in an individual account.
b. It provides a chronological record of transactions.
c. It discloses in one place the complete effect of a transaction.
d. It helps to prevent errors since the debit and credit amounts in an individual entry can be readily compared.
8. Financial statements combining the operations of Sears and J. C. Penney would violate the
a. monetary unit assumption.
b. economic entity assumption.
c. cost principle.
d. both a and c above.
9. A debit will reduce _______________, but increase ______________.
a. accounts receivable; accounts payable
b. revenues; accounts payable
c. accounts payable; common stock
d. common stock; prepaid insurance
10. Which of the following entries made to record the payment of $200 on account will cause the trial balance to be out of balance?
a. No entry is recorded.
b. Cash is debited for $200 and Service Revenue is credited for $200.
c. Cash is debited for $20 and Accounts Payable is credited for $20.
d. Both Cash and Accounts Payable are credited for $200.
11. Although a separate legal entity, the transactions of the following still must be kept separate from the personal activities of the owners for accounting purposes:
d. Both a and b above.
12. The Retained Earnings column had a beginning total of $30,000 and an ending total of $50,000. If $10,000 of dividends were paid during the period, net income must have been
13. The matching principle states that
a. revenues should be matched with assets when they are recorded.
b. revenues should be matched with the periods when cash is collected from customers.
c. recorded values of assets should match their purchase prices.
d. none of the above.
PART II JOURNAL ENTRIES
The ledger accounts given below, with an identification number for each, are used by Wood Company.
Instructions: Indicate the appropriate entries for the month of June by placing the appropriate identification number(s) in the debit and credit columns provided. Item 0 is given as an example. Write "none" if no entry is appropriate.
1. Cash 7. Salaries Payable 13. Service Revenue
2. Accounts Receivable 8. Accounts Payable 14. Equipment Expense
3. Supplies 9. Unearned Service Revenue 15. Advertising Expense
4. Prepaid Salaries 10. Notes Payable 16. Supplies Expense
5. Prepaid Advertising 11. Common Stock 17. Rent Expense
6. Equipment 12. Dividends 18. Salaries Expense
Entry Account(s) Account(s)
No. Entry Information Debited Credited
0. June 1 Stockholders invested $25,000 in the business. 1 11
1. June 4 Paid a supplier $2,000 cash on account.
2. June 5 Equipment was purchased at a cost of $5,000; a three-month, 12% note payable was signed for this amount.
3. June 8 Received $6,000 from customers for services rendered during the week.
4. June 10 Wood agreed to hire B. Jones as a vice-president. She will be paid at the rate of $4,000 monthly, receiving $2,000 on the 15th and 30th of each month. She will begin work June 16.
5. June 14 Paid $400 cash to the Daily News for advertise-ments run this past week.
6. June 16 B. Jones began work.
7. June 19 Paid $2,000 in cash to Santo Company for June rent.
8. June 25 Additional office supplies were purchased on account at a cost of $1,000 from Supply Company. These supplies will be used during July.
9. June 26 Paid the Daily News $400 for an advertisement that will run the first week in July.
10. June 27 Received $9,000 from customers for services to be rendered early in July.
11. June 28 Billed customers $6,000 for services rendered but not collected during June.
12. June 30 Paid $900 of dividends to stockholders.
13. June 30 B. Jones was paid $2,000 cash for her salary.
Instructions: Present the solutions, with appropriate supporting calculations, for each of the following independent problems.
A. Given the following information, compute 2003 net income for McRae Company.
Stockholders' equityJanuary 1, 2003 $105,000
Stockholders' equityDecember 31, 2003 140,000
Stockholder investments during 2003 25,000
Dividends paid during 2003 38,000
B. Given the following information, determine the three missing amounts.
Beginning of the Year End of the Year Changes During the Year
Total Assets $75,000 Total Assets $70,000 Investments $10,000
Total Liabilities ??? Total Liabilities 40,000 Dividends 30,000
Total Stockholders' Equity 25,000 Total Stockholders' Equity ??? Revenues 80,000
PART IV MULTIPLE CHOICE (34 pts)
Income Statement Balance Sheet
Dr. Cr. Dr. Cr.
Totals $58,000 $50,000 $34,000 $42,000
1. The net income (or loss) for the period is
a. $50,000 income.
b. $8,000 income.
c. $8,000 loss.
d. not determinable.
2. To enter the net income (or loss) for the period into the above work sheet requires an entry to the
a. income statement debit column and the balance sheet credit column.
b. income statement credit column and to the balance sheet debit column.
c. income statement debit column and the income statement credit column.
d. balance sheet debit column and to the balance sheet credit column.
3. Closing entries are made
a. in order to terminate the business as an operating entity.
b. so that all assets, liabilities, and stockholders' equity accounts will have zero balances when the next accounting period starts.
c. in order to transfer net income (or loss) and dividends to the Retained Earnings account.
d. so that financial statements can be prepared
4. Two categories of expenses for merchandisers are
a. cost of goods sold and financing expenses.
b. operating expenses and financing expenses.
c. cost of goods sold and operating expenses.
d. sales and cost of goods sold.
5. Sales revenue less cost of goods sold is called
a. gross profit.
b. net profit.
c. net income.
d. marginal income.
7. Which of the following expressions is incorrect?
a. Gross profit - operating expenses = net income
b. Sales - cost of goods sold - operating expenses = net income
c. Net income + operating expenses = gross profit
d. Operating expenses - cost of goods sold = gross profit
8. Which of the following is a true statement about inventory systems?
a. Periodic inventory systems require more detailed inventory records.
b. Perpetual inventory systems require more detailed inventory records.
c. A periodic system requires cost of goods sold be determined after each sale.
d. A perpetual system determines cost of goods sold only at the end of the accounting period.
9. In a perpetual inventory system, cost of goods sold is recorded
a. on a daily basis.
b. on a monthly basis.
c. on an annual basis.
d. with each sale.
10. If a purchaser using a perpetual system agrees to freight terms of FOB shipping point, then the
a. Merchandise Inventory account will be increased.
b. Merchandise Inventory account will not be affected.
c. seller will bear the freight cost.
d. carrier will bear the freight cost.
11. Freight costs paid by a seller on merchandise sold to customers will cause an increase
a. in the selling expenses of the buyer.
b. in operating expenses for the seller.
c. to the cost of goods sold of the seller.
d. to a contra-revenue account of the seller.
12. Howe Company sells merchandise on account for $2,100 to Stine Company with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. Stine Company returns $600 of merchandise that was damaged, along with a check to settle the account within the discount period. What entry does Howe Company make upon receipt of the check?
a. Cash 1,500
Accounts Receivable 1,500
b. Cash 1,470
Sales Returns and Allowances 630
Accounts Receivable . 2,100
c. Cash 1,470
Sales Returns and Allowances 600
Sales Discounts 30
Accounts Receivable 2,100
d. Cash 2,058
Sales Discounts 42
Sales Returns and Allowances 600
Accounts Receivable 1,500
13. Which of the following would not be classified as a contra account?
b. Sales Returns and Allowances
c. Accumulated Depreciation
d. Sales Discounts
14. Items waiting to be used in production are considered to be
a. raw materials.
b. work in progress.
c. finished goods.
d. merchandise inventory.
15. The factor which determines whether or not goods should be included in a physical count of inventory is
a. physical possession.
b. legal title.
c. management's judgment.
d. whether or not the purchase price has been paid.
16. A recommended internal control procedure for taking physical inventories is that the accounting should be done by employees who do not have custodial responsibility for the inventory. This is an example of what type of internal control procedure?
a. Establishment of responsibility
b. Documentation procedure
c. Independent internal verification
d. Segregation of duties
17. The journal entry to record a return of merchandise purchased on account under a periodic inventory system would be
a. Accounts Payable
Purchase Returns and Allowances
b. Purchases Returns and Allowances
c. Accounts Payable
19. West Company has the following account balances:
Sales Returns and Allowances 4,000
Purchase Discounts 2,500
Delivery Expense 2,500
The cost of goods purchased for the period is
20. A company just starting in business purchased three merchandise inventory items at the following prices. First purchase $80; Second purchase $95; Third purchase $85. If the company sold two units for a total of $240 and used FIFO costing, the gross profit for the period would be
21. The LIFO inventory method assumes that the cost of the latest units purchased are
a. the last to be allocated to cost of goods sold.
b. the first to be allocated to ending inventory.
c. the first to be allocated to cost of goods sold.
d. not allocated to cost of goods sold or ending inventory.
Use the following information for questions 22-25.
A company just starting business made the following four inventory purchases in June:
June 1 150 units $ 750
June 10 200 units 1,200
June 15 200 units 1,260
June 28 150 units 990
A physical count of merchandise inventory on June 30 reveals that there are 250 units on hand.
22. Using the LIFO inventory method, the value of the ending inventory on June 30 is
23. Using the FIFO inventory method, the amount allocated to cost of goods sold for June is
24. Using the average cost method, the amount allocated to the ending inventory on June 30 is
25. The inventory method which results in the highest gross profit for June is
a. the FIFO method.
b. the LIFO method.
c. the weighted average unit cost method.
d. not determinable.
26. Which one of the following is not an objective of a system of internal controls?
a. Safeguard company assets
b. Overstate liabilities in order to be conservative
c. Enhance the accuracy and reliability of accounting records
d. Reduce the risks of errors
27. Internal controls are concerned with
a. only manual systems of accounting.
b. the extent of government regulations.
c. safeguarding assets.
d. preparing income tax returns.
28. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act requires that all U. S. corporations under the juris-diction of the Securities and Exchange Commission
a. have at least one foreign subsidiary.
b. maintain accounting records of foreign branches and subsidiaries in the local foreign currency.
c. maintain an adequate system of internal control.
d. must file reports with the National Commission on Fraudulent Financial Reporting.
29. Having one person post entries to accounts receivable subsidiary ledger and a different person post to the Accounts Receivable Control account in the general ledger is an example of
a. inadequate internal control.
b. duplication of effort.
c. external verification.
d. segregation of duties.
30. Having one person responsible for the related activities of ordering merchandise, receiving goods, and paying for them
a. increases the potential for errors and fraud.
b. decreases the potential for errors and fraud.
c. is an example of good internal control.
d. is a good example of safeguarding the company's assets.
31. Internal auditors
a. are hired by CPA firms to audit business firms.
b. are employees of the IRS who evaluate the internal controls of companies filing tax returns.
c. evaluate the system of internal controls for the companies that employ them.
d. cannot evaluate the system of internal controls of the company that employs them because they are not independent.
32. If employees are bonded
a. it means that they are not allowed to handle cash.
b. they have worked for the company for at least 10 years.
c. they have been insured against misappropriation of assets.
d. it is impossible for them to steal from the company.
33. Checks received through the mail should
a. immediately be endorsed "For Deposit Only."
b. be sent to the accounts receivable subsidiary ledger clerk for immediate posting to the customer's account.
c. be cashed at the bank as soon as possible.
d. be "rung up" on a cash register immediately.
34. Elkins Company had checks outstanding totaling $5,400 on its June bank reconciliation. In July, Elkins Company issued checks totaling $38,900. The July bank statement shows that $26,300 in checks cleared the bank in July. A check from one of Elkins Company's customers in the amount of $300 was also returned marked "NSF." The amount of outstanding checks on Elkins Company's July bank reconciliation should be
d. d. $7,200.
Ivan Rice is a new accountant with Wertz Company. Wertz purchased merchandise on account for $6,000. The credit terms are 2/10, n/30. Ivan has talked with the company's banker and knows that he could earn 10% on any money invested in the company's savings account.
(a) Should Ivan pay the invoice within the discount period or should he keep the $6,000 in the savings account and pay at the end of the credit period? Support your recommendation with a calculation showing which action would be best.
(b) If Ivan forgoes the discount, it may be viewed as paying an interest rate of 2% for the use of $6,000 for 20 days. Calculate the annual rate of interest that this is equivalent to.
(a) Bell Company purchased merchandise on account from Office Suppliers for $85,000, with terms of 2/10, n/30. During the discount period, Bell returned some merchandise and paid $73,500 as payment in full. Bell uses a perpetual inventory system. Prepare the journal entries that Bell Company made to record:
(1) the purchase of merchandise.
(2) the return of merchandise.
(3) the payment on account.
(b) Ace Company sold merchandise to Watt Company on account for $63,000 with credit terms of ?/10, n/30. The cost of the merchandise sold was $42,000. During the discount period, Watt Company returned $3,000 of merchandise and paid its account in full (minus the discount) by remitting $59,400 in cash. Both companies use a perpetual inventory system. Prepare the journal entries that Ace Company made to record:
(1) the sale of merchandise.
(2) the return of merchandise.
(3) (3) the collection on account.
Important objectives of a system of internal controls are to safeguard assets and to enhance the accuracy and reliability of the accounting records. Briefly discuss how (1) cost-benefit considerations, (2) the human element, and (3) the size of the business, affect the implementation of a system of internal controls.
The solution provides explanations for various multiple choice questions in accounting.