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1. Absorption costing measures contribution to profit as:
A) Sales less unit- level costs spent of goods sold.
B) Sales less absorption cost of goods sold.
C) Sales less absorption cost of goods sold.
D) Sales less all costs including operating expenses.

2. In a job-order costing system, the journal entry to record depreciation on factory equipment would be recorded by a:
A) Debit to Depreciation Expense, credit to Accumulated Depreciation
B) Debit to Manufacturing Overhead, credit to Depreciation Expense
C) Debit to manufacturing Overhead, credit to Work-in-Process
D) Debit to Manufacturing Overhead, credit to Accumulated Depreciation

3. Which of the following statements regarding traditional cost accounting systems is False?
A) Products are often over or under costed in traditional cost accounting systems
B) Most traditional cost accounting systems do not trace individual costs to products.
C) The advantage of traditional cost accounting systems is their simplicity.
D) Traditional cost accounting systems can be sufficient to meet managers' cost information needs as long as the level of indirect costs is relatively high compared to the level of direct costs.

4. Which of the following indicates that a company may benefit from an Activity-Based Costing system?
A) Standard high-volume goods and services show significant profits.
B) Indirect costs are insignificant in proportion to direct costs.
C) The company loses relatively high priced bids.
D) Goods and services are complex and may require many different processes or inputs

5. Which of the following is not a planning issue in Activity-Based-Management?
A) The intended scope of the project
B) The current customer base
C) Information gathering
D) Resistance to change

6. Under what conditions will the FIFO method produce the same cost of goods manufactured as the weighted-average method?
A) When there is no ending inventory
B) When the beginning and ending inventories are both 50% complete
C) When there is no beginning inventory
D) When the beginning and ending inventories are equal

7. Which of the following is not a step needed to maximize the profits from joint products?
A) Forecasting the sales price of each final product.
B) B) Identifying alternative sets and quantities of final products possible from the joint process.
C) Determining how to allocate joint costs to the final products.
D) Estimating the costs required to further process joint products into salable products.

8. Which of the following is not a method of allocating joint costs?
A) Sales value at split-off
B) Net realizable value
C) By-product method
D) Physical-measures method

9. Which of the following statements best describes the account analysis approach to cost estimation?
A) Cost estimates are based on optimal or ideal operating conditions.
B) Discernible patterns of the past are used to predict future behavior.
C) Historical operating costs are plotted against some past operating activity.
D) Relies heavily on the accounting personnel's experience and judgment.

10. Which cost estimation method is based on both past and future data?
A) Engineering method.
B) Regression method.
C) Account analysis method.
D) All of the above.

11. Cost-volume profit (CVP) analysis is a key factor in many decisions, including choice of product lines, pricing of products, marketing strategy, and use of productive facilities. A calculation used in a CVP analysis is the break-even point. Once the break-even point has been reached, operating income will increase by the
A) contribution margin per unit for each additional unit sold
B) fixed cost per unit for each additional unit sold.
C) variable cost per unit for each additional unit sold
D) none of the above.

12. Break-even analysis assumes that:
A) total revenue is constant.
B) unit variable cost is constant.
C) unit fixed cost is constant.
D) all of the above.

13. Which of the following is typically considered fixed under traditional budgeting processes, but considered variable under activity based budgeting:
A) Set ups, inspections and purchasing
B) Material handling, designing and quality control
C) A and B
D) None of the above

14. Which of the following does not affect a material purchase price variance?
A) Increases in the demand for the firm's output
B) Need to purchase component parts with precise engineering specifications
C) Rush order requests from the production department
D) World-wide shortages of critical input materials

15. Subjective performance evaluation:
A) Compares an individual's performance to that of others.
B) Bases rewards on a performance evaluation formula.
C) Compares individual performance to set objectives or expectations.
D) Uses non-quantified criteria to evaluate individuals.

16. In a multi-product firm, activity levels for a flexible budget are based on
A) output measures
B) input measures
C) Either
D) Neither

17. Which of the following companies would most likely use a process costing system?
A) A large computer manufacturer where each computer is made to customer specifications.
B) A luxury home builder
C) A law firm
D) A manufacturer of cereals

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