Gandor Co. is a U.S. firm that is considering a joint venture with a Chinese firm to produce and sell videocassettes. Gandor will invest $12 million in this project which will help to finance the Chinese firm's production. For each of the first 3 years, 50 percent of total profits will be distributed to the Chinese firm, while the remaining 50 percent will be converted to dollars to be sent to the United States. The Chinese Government intends to impose a 20% percent income tax on the profits distributed to Gandor. The Chinese government has guaranteed that the after-tax profits (denominated in Yuan, the Chinese currency) can be converted to US dollars at an exchange rate of $.20 per Yuan and sent to Gandor Co. each year. At the current time, no withholding tax is imposed on profits sent to the United States as a result of joint ventures in China. Assume that after considering taxes paid in China, an additional 10 percent tax is imposed by the US Government on profits received by Gandor Co. After the first 3 years, all profits earned are allocated to the Chinese firm.
The expected total profits resulting from the joint venture per year are as follows:
Year Total Profits from Joint Venture (in Yuan)
1 60 million
2 80 million
3 100 million
Gandor's average cost of debt is 13.8 percent before taxes. Its average cost of equity is 18 percent. Assume that the corporate income tax rate imposed on Gandor is normally 30 percent. Gandor uses a capital structure composed of 60 percent debt and 40 percent equity. Gandor automatically adds 4 percentage points to its cost of capital when deriving its required rate of return on international joint ventures. Though this project has particular forms of country risk that are unique, Gandor plans to account for these forms of risk within its estimation of cash flows.
Gandor is concerned about two forms of country risk.
First there is the risk that the Chinese government will increase the corporate income tax rate from 20 percent to 40 percent (20 percent probability). If this occurs, additional tax credits will be allowed, resulting in no US taxes on the profits from this joint venture.
Second there is the risk that the Chinese government will impose a withholding tax of 10 percent on the profits that are sent to the United States (20 percent probability). In this case, additional tax credits will not be allowed and Gandor will still be subject to a 10 percent US tax on profits received from China. Assume that the two types of country risk as mutually exclusive. That is, the Chinese government will only adjust one of its taxes (the income tax or the withholding tax), if any.
Would you recommend that Gandor participate in the joint venture? Why or why not? Please include Gandor's cost of capital and consideration of a capital budgeting analysis (performed by you) based on the three scenarios
Scenario 1 - Based on Original Asssumptions
Scenario 2 - Based on an increase in the corporate income tax by the Chinese Government
Scenario 3 - Based on the imposition of a withholding tax by the chinese government.
What do you think would be the key underlying factor that would have the most influence on the profits earned in China as a result of the joint venture? Provide a current example of a MNC that confronts this same factor.
Is there a potential conflict between stockholders and creditors should Gandor revise the composition of debt versus equity in its capital structure to finance the joint venture? WHy?
When Gandor was assessing this proposed joint venture, some of its managers of recommended that Gandor borrow the Chinese currency rather than dollars to obtain some of the necessary capital for its initial investment. They suggested that such a strategy could reduce Gandor's exchange rate risk. Do you agree? Why or why not?
The solution explains how should Gandor Company decide whether to participate in joint venture with Chinese firm