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# LIFO and FIFO Key Purchases

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Keefer, Inc. began business on January 1, 2010. Information on its inventory purchases and sales during 2010 and 2011 follow:
Inventory Purchases__________________
Date Units Cost per Unit Total
January 1, 2010 85 \$25 \$ 2,125 March 15, 2010 100 27 2,700 May 15, 2010 90 28 2,520 August 1, 2010 100 30 3,000 September 3, 2010 125 31 3,875 December 5, 2010 50 32 1,600 Total purchases - 2010 550 \$15,820
February 20, 2011 150 \$31 4,650 March 29, 2011 100 30 3,000 July 1, 2011 100 29 2,900 August 20, 2011 100 28 2,800 November 3, 2011 80 27 2,160 Total purchases - 2011 530 \$15,510

Inventory Sales______________________
_________________________________________Units Price per Unit Total______ March 18, 2010 65 \$50 \$ 3250 August 15, 2010 200 52 10,400 October 6, 2010 175 53 9,275 Total sales - 2010 440 22,925
February 12, 2011 100 \$ 53 5,300 June 2, 2011 200 52 10,400 September 30, 2011 210 50 10,500 Total sale - 2011 510 26,200
a. Calculate ending inventory, cost of goods sold, and gross margin for 2010 and 2011 under the periodic FIFO inventory valuation method.
b. Calculate ending inventory, cost of goods sold, and gross margin for 2010 and 2011 under the periodic LIFO inventory valuation method.
c. What is the difference in reported results under FIFO versus LIFO for each year?

\$2.19

## Dr. Pepper, Samuda Enterprises, Territo, Inc, Steward Company, Matson Company

Consolidated Balance Sheets (partial), Consolidated Statements of Operations (partial), and Inventory

COMP 8-1. Complete the requirement for each of the following independent cases:

Case A. Dr. Pepper Snapple Group, Inc., is a leading integrated brand owner, bottler, and distributor of nonalcoholic beverages in the United States, Canada, and Mexico, Key brands include Dr. Pepper, Snapple, 7-UP, Mott's juices, A&W root beer, Canada Dry ginger ale, Schweppes ginger ale, and Hawaiian Punch, among others.

The following represents selected data from recent financial statements of Dr. Pepper Snapple Group (dollars in millions):

DR PEPPER SNAPPLE GROUP, INC.
Consolidated Balance Sheets (partial)
(in millions) December 31, 2008 December 31, 2007
Assets
Current Assets:
Cash and cash equivalents \$214 \$ 67
Accounts receivable (net of allowances
of \$13 and \$20, respectively) 532 538

Consolidated Statements of Operations (partial)
For the Year Ended
December 31
_________________________
(in millions) 2008 2007 2006

Net Sales \$5,710 \$5,695 \$4,700
...
Net (loss) income \$ (312) \$ 497 \$ 510

The company also reported bad debt expense of \$5 million in 2008, \$11 million in 2007, and \$7 million in 2006.

1. Record the company's write-offs of uncollectible accounts for 2008.

2. Assuming all sales were on credit, what amount of cash did Dr. Pepper Snapple Group collect from customers in 2008?

3. Compute the company's net profit margin for the three years presented. What does the trend suggest to you about Dr. Pepper Snapple Group?

Case B. Samuda Enterprises uses the aging approach to estimate bad debt expense. At the end of 2011, Samuda reported a balance in accounts receivable of \$620,000 and estimated that \$12,400 of its accounts receivable would likely be uncollectable. The allowance for doubtful accounts has a \$1,500 debit balance at year-end (that is, more was written off during the year than the balance in the account).

1. What amount of bad debt expense should be recorded for 2011?
2. What amount will be reported on the 2011 balance sheet for accounts receivable?

Case C. At the end of 2012, the unadjusted trial balance of Territo, Inc. indicated \$5,840,000 in Accounts Receivable, a credit balance of \$9,200 in Allowance for Doubtful Accounts, and Sales Revenue (all on credit) of \$160,450,000. Based on knowledge that the current economy is in distress, Territo increased in bad debt rate estimate to 0.3 percent on credit sales.

1. What amount of bad debt expense should be recorded for 2012?
2. What amount will be reported on the 2012 balance sheet for accounts receivable?

Case D. Steward Company reports the following inventory records for November 2010:

Inventory
Date Activity #of Units Cost/Unit
November 1 Beginning balance 100 \$18
November 4 Purchase 300 \$19
November 7 Sale (@ \$50 per unit) 200
November 13 Purchase 500 \$21
November 22 Sale (@ \$50 per unit) 500

Selling, administrative, and depreciate expenses for the month were \$16,000. Stewart's tax rate is 30 percent.

1. Calculate the cost of ending inventory and the cost of goods sold under each of the following methods:
a. First-in, first-out
b. Last-in, first out
c. Weighted average

a. What is the gross profit percentage under the FIFO method?
b. What is the net income under the LIFO method?
c. Which method would you recommend to Stewart for tax and financial reporting purposes? Explain your recommendation.

3. Stewart applied the lower cost of market method to value its inventory for reporting purposes at the end of the month. Assuming Stewart used the FIFO method and that inventory had a market replacement value of \$19.50 per unit, what would Stewart report on the balance sheet for inventory? Why?

Case E. Matson Company purchased the following on January 1, 2011:

Office equipment at a cost of \$50,000 with an estimated useful life to the company of three years and a residual value of \$15,000. The company uses the double-declining-balance method of depreciation for the equipment.
Factory equipment at an invoice price of \$820,000 plus shipping costs of \$20,000. The equipment has an estimated useful life of 100,000 hours and no residual value. The company uses the units-of-production method of depreciation for the equipment.
A patent at a cost of \$300,000 with an estimated useful life of 15 years. The company uses the straight-line method of amortization for intangible assets with no residual value.

1. Prepare a partial depreciation schedule for 2011, 2012, and 2013 for the following assets (round your answers to the nearest dollar):
a. Office equipment
b. Factory equipment. The company used the equipment for 8,000 hours in 2011, 9,200 hours in 2012, and 8,900 hours in 2013.

2. On January 1, 2014, Matson altered its corporate strategy dramatically. The company sold the factory equipment for \$700,000 in cash. Record the entry related to the sale of the factory equipment.

3. On January 1, 2014, when the company changed its corporate strategy, its patent had estimated future cash flows of \$210,000 and a fair value of \$190,000. What would the company report on the income statement (account and amount) regarding the patent on January 2, 2014? Explain your answer.

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