I have to respond to each question and reference a different ethical theory for each question. The ethical theories that can be used are as follows:
1) Is drug testing an unwarranted invasion of employee privacy? Which is more important--getting drugs out of the workplace or protecting the privacy of the employee?
2) What about other health-threatening activities, i.e. smoking outside of working hours, unprotected sex, etc. Should employers be able to question or test employees or potential employees about these activities?
3) Should employers be allowed to use polygraph tests to screen out potentially costly employees who may engage in illegal drug use or any of these activities?
I'm having trouble with the ethical theories and would appreciate assistance.
If you feel that my bid is to low, please get back to me.
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Having already explained the different theories, I am going to address the different questions. You mentioned that you basically need a little bit of information in connecting an individual theory to a question or scenario and you could build on that.
1) For the first one, the easy slip will be to use the word fairness within Rawlsianism to mean it is unfair for the employees. When researching employee right to privacy, a common reference is to fairness. However, Rawls concept of fairness is more similar to resource allocation, IE distributive justice. Though an aspect of that is everyone is treated equally, or as close as possible. If you're familiar with it, the concept could be likened to the push and pull of supply and demand in economics. An interesting approach would be to use the Egoism perspectve for that of the organization. From my last post, ethical egoism is what a person ought to do (Beauchamp & Bowie, 2001). Arguments against this normative theory of human behavior suggest that chaos and anarchy will prevail as society becomes self serving, but proponents suggest that abiding by law and order is in itself self serving in preservation. So, related to this question, assuring that drugs are out of the workplace is what the organization ought to do in order to preserve its self interest. I have attached a file titled "ought implies can", which will give you source material for this ...
Business ethics references are examined.