1. To assist in providing new revenues to the federal government, some have proposed a value added tax (VAT) similar to those used in the United Kingdom and Canada. What are the pros and cons of introducing this type of national sales tax?
2. Describe the formal federal budget process. In your view, what are some of the key challenges in this process?
3. There has been considerable discussion about the U.S. debt situation. Briefly outline the current situation and responses available to the government.
4. How does the government affect policy making?© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 25, 2018, 8:17 am ad1c9bdddf
A national sales tax facilitates the government authorities to earn money from sales of consumer goods (Brumbaugh, 2007). Hence, it also considers some pros and cons that are necessary for the governing authorities of the federal government to tackle the situation in effective manner:
Pros of National Sales Tax: By imposing VAT, the government increases its revenues that help to continue the social welfare activities for fulfilling the basic needs of people related to house, food and cloth. With the help of this tax, the government could provide the national agencies for developing the basic infrastructure of country that could help to improve the living standards of countrymen (Hyman, 2007). On the other hand, due to the implementation of sales tax, the government could increase the additional taxes over the individual taxpayers. This tax also helps the government to improve the financial condition of country that would help to fight against the economic slowdown in the world market.
Cons of National Sales Tax: The main disadvantage of national sales tax is that who will collect and deposit it in government account. On the other hand, the national tax also reduces the earnings of poor people, while the poor people already pay some part of their income in the form of taxes (Brumbaugh, 2007). Hence, the introduction of this tax could increase the financial instability of the people that could enhance problems for the people.
The federal government uses four steps process to make formal federal budget as below:
Preparation and Requests: The budget process starts by the submission of budget proposal from the president for next fiscal year that starts from 1st October. The president ...
A discussion on value added tax, federal budget process and policy making is examined.
Public Administration Seminar in Decision Outcomes
Public Administration Seminar in Decision Outcomes
Individual - Project Part I - Financial Overview Assignment
For the project in this course, you may use the local government and public policy identified in MBAPA/591 or you may choose to use another local government and policy.
Prepare a paper assessing that government's financial health. Utilize the comprehensive annual report and budget documents for the government. In this paper you should do the following:
a. Explain the difference between expenditures, expenses, and encumbrances.
b. Describe the government's capital project, general, and proprietary funds.
c. Analyze the budget.
1) What are the main revenue sources?
2) Describe the budgetary levels. Are items budgeted at the department level, program level, other?
3) Describe the long-range spending and short-range spending plans.
4) Which departments/programs receive the largest appropriations?
d. Explain how public policy translates into the government's short-range and long-range spending plans.
Individual - Project Part II - Developing Funding Choices
Using the local government and public policy identified for your project, prepare a paper assessing that government's revenues and examining possible funding options for your public policy implementation. Utilize the comprehensive annual report and budget documents for the government. In this paper you should do the following:
a. Using the budget, analyze your local government's sources of revenue. Determine which revenues are used in which funds: governmental, proprietary, and fiduciary.
b. Describe any restrictions that are (or could be) placed on those revenues.
c. Evaluate how public policy decisions affect the receipt of revenues.
d. Analyze the economic conditions that affect revenue projections.
e. Develop a revenue policy that aligns with community values
Individual - Project Part III - Economic Development Implications
Using the local government and public policy identified for your project, prepare a paper discussing the economic impact of your public policy issue. The public policy issue that you have selected for your project is almost certain to have economic development implications. Utilize your government's comprehensive annual report, budget documents, and the Internet for this assignment. In this paper you should do the following:
a. Define enterprise zones and explain the utilization of these zones by your chosen government and the state within which the government exists.
b. Assess how the enterprise zones could be used to enhance the economic development implications of your policy issue.
c. Describe how a cost-benefit analysis of an economic development can be performed.
d. Evaluate incentives that are currently given to developers and other agencies to enhance economic development and rural development projects by the local and the state governments.
e. Evaluate the ethical consequences of the economic development initiative.