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# Break-Even / Operating Leverage and Cash Budget

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Cash Budget

For Company X, actual sales for November and December, and projected sales for January through August are as follows:

actual sales projected sales
Nov 225,000 Jan 105,000 May 280,000
Dec 180,000 Feb 115,000 Jun 255,000
Mar 135,000 Jul 240,000
Apr 255,000 Aug 165,000

Company X collects 25% of its sales in cash at the time of sale; 50% of sales is collected in the month following the sale; and the remaining 25% is collected in the second month after the sale.

Raw materials are purchased on credit two months ahead of expected sales, at a cost equal to 75% of the expected sales; the purchases are paid for one month after the purchase. For example, purchases for March sales are made in January, and paid for in February.

The Company pays \$10,000 per month for rent, and \$20,000 per month for other expenses. Quarterly tax payments of \$23,000 are due in March and June.

The Company's cash balance on December 31 was \$22,000; the Company's policy requires a minimum cash balance of \$20,000 each month. Anytime the cash balance will fall below the minimum, the Company will use short-term financing to maintain the minimum. This financing carries interest of 12% per year (i.e. 1% per month). Borrowing occurs at the beginning of the month in which it will be needed, and interest will be paid in the month after it is incurred. For example, if the Company will need an additional \$30,000 in March to maintain the minimum balance, that amount will be borrowed on Mar 1; therefore, the Company will owe \$300 in interest for the month of March; this interest will be paid in April. Assume that any short-term financing will be repaid in the first month in which there is additional cash available.

1. Prepare a cash budget for Company X covering January through July.
2. Company X has \$150,000 in notes payable due in July that must be repaid or renegotiated for an extension. Will the Company have enough cash in July to repay the notes?

Chapter 5 - Time Value of Money
Be sure to show how you determine the answers to the Time Value of Money problems.

1. What will be the future value of the following investments?
a) \$3,000 invested for 10 years at 8% interest compounded annually
b) \$7,000 invested for 9 years at 7% interest compounded annually
c) \$900 invested for 11 years at 10% interest compounded annually
d) \$20,000 invested for 5 years at 4% interest compounded annually

2. What is the present value of the following future amounts?
a) \$700 to be received 9 years from now discounted back to the present at 8%
b) \$300 to be received 4 years from now discounted back to the present at 5%
c) \$900 to be received 7 years from now discounted back to the present at 4%
d) \$800 to be received 8 years from now discounted back to the present at 19%

3. What is the future value of the following annuities?
a) \$400 per year for 9 years compounded annually at 5%
b) \$200 per year for 4 years compounded annually at 10%
c) \$85 per year for 7 years compounded annually at 6%
d) \$75 per year for 2 years compounded annually at 1%

4. What is the present value of the following annuities?
a) \$2,000 per year for 9 years discounted back to the present at 7%
b) \$100 per year for 5 years discounted back to the present at 2%
c) \$200 per year for 7 years discounted back to the present at 6%
d) \$500 per year for 8 years discounted back to the present at 9%

Chapter 15 - Break-Even / Operating Leverage
Be sure to show how you determine the answers to these problems.

Use the following information to answer the questions below:

Company A Company B Company C
average selling price per unit 20.00 300.00 50.00
average variable cost per unit 15.50 200.00 18.00
units sold 85,000 4,500 15,000
fixed costs 45,000 100,000 70,000

a) What is the profit for each company at the indicated sales volume?
b) What is the break-even point in units for each company?
c) What is the degree of operating leverage for each company at the indicated sales volume?
d) If sales were to decline, which company would suffer the largest relative decline in profitability?

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#### Solution Summary

Break-Even / Operating Leverage and Cash Budget are examined

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