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Variance calculation

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Attached Problem.

2. The Sterling Company uses a standard cost system in which manufacturing overhead costs are applied to the units of the company's single product on the basis of direct labor-hours (DLHs). The standard cost card for the product follows:

Standard Cost Card-per unit of product:
Direct materials, 4 yards at $3.50 per yard $14
Direct labor, 1.5 DLHs at $8 per DLH 12
Variable overhead, 1.5 DLHs at $2 per DLH 3
Fixed overhead, 1.5 DLHs at $6 per DLH 9

The following data pertain to last year's activities:
- The company manufactured 18,000 units of product during the year. A total of 70,200 yards of material was purchased during the year at a cost of $3.75 per yard. All of this material was used to manufacture the 18,000 units.
- The company worked 29,250 direct labor hours during the year at a cost of $7.80 per hour.
- The denominator activity level was 22,500 direct labor hours.
- Budgeted fixed manufacturing overhead costs were $135,000 while actual manufacturing overhead costs were $133,200.
- Actual variable manufacturing overhead costs were $61,425.

Required:

a. Compute the direct materials price and quantity variances for the year.
b. Compute the direct labor rate and efficiency variances for the year.
c. Compute the variable overhead spending and efficiency variances for the year.
d. Compute the fixed overhead budget and volume variances for the year.
e. Discuss some possible reasons for the direct labor variances that you computed.

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The solution explains how to calculate material, labor and overhead variances

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E14.4
Osage inc., has actual sales for June and July and forecast sales for august, September, October and November as follows:

Actual
June 4,150 units
July 4,350 units
Forecasted
August 4,200 units
September 4,950 units
October 3,900 units
November 3,700 units

a. The firm's policy is to have finished goods inventory on hand at the end of the month that is equal to 70% of the next month's sales. It is currently estimated that there would be 3300 units on hand at the end of July. Calculate the number of units to be produced in each of the month of august, September and October.
b. Each unit of finished product requires 5 pounds of raw materials. The firm's policy is to have raw material inventory on hand at the end of each month that is equal to 80% of the next month's estimated usage. It is currently estimated that 13,000 pounds of raw materials will be on hand at the end of July. Calculate the number of pounds of raw materials in each of the month of august and September.
c.
E14.6
Flagstaff co. has actual sales for July and august and forecast sales for September, October, November and December as follows:

Actual
July $73500
August 78750
Forecasted
September 85500
October 70500
November 91500
December 80250
Based on past experience, it is estimated that 30% of a month's sales are collected in the month of sales. 50% are collected in the month following the sale, and 18% are collected in the second month following the sale.

A. Calculate the estimated cash receipt for September, October and November.

E14.8
Ozark manufacturing company manufactures and sells household cleaning products. The company's research department has developed a new cleaner for which a standard cost must be determined. The new cleaner is made by mixing 18 quarts of triphate solution and 8 pounds of sobase granules and boiling the mixture for several minutes. After the solution has cooled, 4 ounces of methage are added. This "recipe" produces 15 quarts of the cleaner, which is then packaged in one-quart plastic dispenser bottles. Raw material costs are:

Triphate solution $.45 per quart
Sobase granules .90 per pound
Methage 1.40 per ounce
Bottle .25 each

a. Using the preceding data, calculate the raw material cost for one bottle of the new cleaner.
b. Assuming that the preceding cost are the current best estimate of the costs at which required quantities of the raw materials can be purchased. Would you recommend that any other factors be considered in establishing the raw material cost standard for the new cleaner?
c. Explain the process that will be used to develop the direct labor cost standard for the new product.

E15.2
Rocky mountain manufacturing produces a single product. The original budget for November was based on expected production of 35,000 units; actual production for November was 33, 250 units. The original budget and actual costs incurred for the manufacturing department follow:

Original budget actual costs
Direct materials $551,250 $541,500
Direct labor 427,000 413,500
Variable overhead 217,000 195,250
Fixed overhead 17,000 172,500
Total $1,365,250 $1,322,750

a. Prepare an appropriate performance report for the manufacturing department.

P15.14
The standards for one case of liquid weed killer are;

Direct materials 3lbs@$6.00/lb
Direct labor 1.8hrs@$12.00/hr
Variable overhead (based on machine hours) 0.6hrs@$3.50/hr

During the week ended august 6, the following activity took place
2390 machine hrs were worked
11400lbs of raw materials were purchased for inventory at a total cost of $70,680
3,800 cases of finished products were produced
6,720 labor hrs were worked at an average rate of $12.25 per hr
$8,126 actual variable overhead costs were incurred.
Calculate the following variances and provide plausible explanations for the results.
a. price variance for raw materials purchased
b. raw materials usage variance
c. direct labor rate variance
d. direct labor efficiency variance
e. variable overhead spending variance
f. Variable overhead efficiency variance.

C15.23
Bennett inc., manufactures quality replacement parts for the auto industry. The co. uses a standard costing system and isolates variances as soon as possible. The purchasing manager is responsible for controlling the direct material price variances for hundreds of raw material items that are used in the company's various production processes. Recent experience indicates that, in the aggregate, direct material price variances have been favorable. However, several problems have occurred. Direct material usage variances have become consistently unfavorable for many items, and the company's total budget variance for raw materials have been unfavorable during each of the past six months. Direct laborers have complained about the quality of certain raw material items, and major customers have cancelled purchase orders. In the mean time, the company's raw materials inventory has increased by nearly 240%

a. Give a probable explanation why these results have occurred. (What might the purchasing manager be doing hat is dysfunctional for the company as a whole?)
b. How could the performance reporting system be improved to encourage more appropriate behavior on the part of the purchasing manager?

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