Accounting is the business discipline that studies how a company's financial information can be manipulated and presented, in a meaningful way, to enhance the decision-usefulness of that financial information. We typically think of accounting as incorporating three related disciplines: financial accounting, management accounting, and auditing.
Financial accounting looks to present financial information that is useful to external users, such as investors and creditors, who use this information to make resource allocation decisions between businesses. This information is subject to IFRS or US GAAP, is prepared using double-entry bookkeeping, and is presented in four required financial statements: the balance sheet, the income statement, the cash flow statement, and the statement of owner's equity.
Management accounting deals with information that is used by internal users, such as a business's managers, who use this information to make resource allocation decisions within the firm. These include short-run production decisions and long-run capital budgeting decisions. (At BrainMass.com, we look at capital budgeting decisions under Corporate Finance.)
Management accounting information comes in a variety of financial reports, including budgets. This information is not subject to accounting standards, and how this information is prepared changes based on the costs of collecting financial information and the benefits that this information has for management decision-making. As a result, a variety of different management accounting techniques are used.
Auditing typically refers to financial auditing of public companies. Financial audits are conducted by independant external auditors, who provide an opinion about a company's financial reports. These auditors must adhere to Generally Accepted Auditing Standards (GAAS) in the United States, and their opinions give investors reasonable assurance that financial reports are true, fair, and adhere to applicable accounting standards. The auditor must also include an opinion about the effectiveness of a company's internal controls.
In addition to the financial audit, there is a range of many different types of audit and assurance services. Many financial auditing firms also provide a range of these services, giving feedback about the effectiveness of a company's processes and procedures. These services may also be provided by in-house internal auditors that work within a single company.
Categories within Accounting:
Financial accounting is the accounting discipline that looks at manipulating and presenting financial information for external users.
Management accounting is the accounting discipline concerned with collecting and presenting financial information to be used by a business's managers (that is, internal users) for decision-making within the organization.
Auditing typically refers to the type of financial statement and internal control audit performed by external auditors. External auditors may also perform a forensic audit for use in court. Auditing may also refer to the range of internal auditing and assurance services that accountants may provide to firms.
Software Associates Harvard Business Review by Kaplan Report to Richard Norton, CEO of Software Associates 1. Prepare a variance analysis report based on the information in Exhibit 1. Would this be sufficient to explain the profit explain the profit shortfall to Norton at the 8 am meeting? ( see highlighted answers
ABC received $1,075,736 including accrued interest when they issued bonds on April 1, 2011. The bonds had a face value of $1,000,000 and 9% interest payable annually on Jan 2, and maturing Jan 2, 2021. ABC retired $300,000 of the bonds at 102 plus accrued interest on July 1, 2013. What are the journal entries for the origin
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You have two investment opportunities. One will have a 9.0% rate of return on an investment of $590; the other will have an 12.0% rate of return on principal of $860. You would like to take advantage of the higher yielding investment but have only $590 available. What is the maximum rate of interest that you would pay to borr
What is the history and definition of lean accounting? What is the history of GAAP?
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Please treat the following - (a) (b) and (c) as separate units: (a) Bay Company owned 70% of the voting common stock of Clay Corporation. Clay Corporation owned 20% of Bay Company. For 2011, Bay Company and Clay Corporation reported net income (not including the investment) of $600,000 and $300,000 respectively. Bay Company
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Accounting: Statement of Cash flows
- All of the following are sections of the statement of cash flows except: