I have been attempting to do a bar graph and a histogram graph on the computer for a couple of days from the information below. I have tried all the on-line examples of how to make a graph and no luck. I am not computer literate at all. could you provide maybe a simple web-site or step by step instructions how to complete these graphs.
Here is the information that needs to be plotted on the bar-graph and histogram.
CDC estimates that 23 million cases of acute gastroenteritis are due to norovirus infection, and it is now thought that at least 50% of all food borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis can be attributed to noroviruses.
Among the 232 outbreaks of norovirus illness reported to CDC from July 1997 to June 2000, 57% were food borne, 16% were due to person-to-person spread, and 3% were waterborne; in 23% of outbreaks, the cause of transmission was not determined. In this study, common settings for outbreaks include restaurants and catered meals (36%), nursing homes (23%), schools (13%), and vacation settings or cruise ships (10%).
Most food borne outbreaks of norovirus illness are likely to arise though direct contamination of food by a food handler immediately before its consumption. Outbreaks have frequently been associated with consumption of cold foods, including various salads, sandwiches, and bakery products. Liquid items (e.g., salad dressing or cake icing) that allow virus to mix evenly are often implicated as a cause of outbreaks. Food can also be contaminated at its source, and oysters from contaminated waters have been associated with widespread outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Other foods, including raspberries and salads, have been contaminated before widespread distribution and subsequently caused extensive outbreaks.
Waterborne outbreaks of norovirus disease in community settings have often been caused by sewage contamination of wells and recreational water.
The best software to create these is MS Excel. Please see the attached files. There is not enough information to construct histograms, but bar graphs have been done.
Creating a bar graph in Excel
Data is entered into Excel much in the same way as it is with scatter plots and line graphs:
Note that the independent variable is placed in the first column while the dependent variable is placed in the second column. The headers at the top of each column are not necessary, but they do help identify the variables.
With the data shown above highlighted, start the Chart Wizard from the toolbar:
If the Chart Wizard is not visible on the toolbar, choose Insert > Chart...
Choose the Column Chart type and the Chart sub-type in the upper left corner (basic bar graph). This chart type creates a vertical bar graph, which Excel refers to as a Column chart. If you want to create a horizontal bar graph, choose the Bar chart type. Click Next when you are done.
Confirm that your Data Series are in Columns in your spreadsheet. Your Data range should reflect your selection of the independent and dependent data (plus possibly your column headers) in absolute cell references. The preview should show a pretty good representation of what your chart will look like. Click Next when you are done.
Enter your titling. Also make sure to go to the Legend tab and click off the Show Legend option. You will not need a legend with only one independent variable. Click Next or Finish when you are done.
Your final graph should look ...
This solution contains detailed step-by-step instructions and examples to create a bar graph and histrogram on Excel that represent the case study of norovirus.