In Dallas, some fire trucks were painted yellow (instead of red) to heighten their visibility. During a test period, the fleet of red fire trucks made 153,348 runs and had 20 accidents, while the fleet of yellow fire trucks made 135,035 runs and had 4 accidents. At alpha = .01, did the yellow fire trucks have a significantly lower accident rate?
(a) State the hypotheses.
(b) State the decision rule and sketch it.
(c) Find the sample proportions and z test statistic.
(d) Make a decision.
(e) Find the p-value and interpret it.
(f) If statistically significant, do you think the difference is large enough to be important? If so, to whom, and why?
(g) Is the normality assumption fulfilled? Explain.
Accident Rate for Dallas Fire Trucks
Statistic Red Fire Trucks Yellow Fire Trucks
Number of accidents x1 = 20 accidents x2 = 4 accidents
Number of fire runs n1 = 153,348 runs n2 = 135,035 runs
Does lovastatin (a cholesterol-lowering drug) reduce the risk of heart attack? In a Texas study, researchers gave lovastatin to 2,325 people and an inactive substitute to 2,081 people (average age 58). After 5 years, 57 of the lovastatin group had suffered a heart attack, compared with 97 for the inactive pill. (a) State the appropriate hypotheses. (b) Obtain a test statistic and p-value. Interpret the results at _ = .01. (c) Is normality assured? (d) Is the difference large enough to be important? (e) What else would medical researchers need to know before prescribing this drug widely? (Data are from Science News 153 [May 30, 1998], p. 343.)
To test the hypothesis that students who finish an exam first get better grades, Professor Hardtack kept track of the order in which papers were handed in. The first 25 papers showed a mean score of 77.1 with a standard deviation of 19.6, while the last 24 papers handed in showed a mean score of 69.3 with a standard deviation of 24.9. Is this a significant difference at _ = .05? (a) State the hypotheses for a right-tailed test. (b) Obtain a test statistic and p-value assuming equal variances. Interpret these results. (c) Is the difference in mean scores large enough to be important? (d) Is it reasonable to assume equal variances? (e) Carry out a formal test for equal variances at _ = .05, showing all steps clearly.
A sample of 25 concession stand purchases at the October 22 matinee of Bride of Chucky showed a mean purchase of $5.29 with a standard deviation of $3.02. For the October 26 evening showing of the same movie, for a sample of 25 purchases the mean was $5.12 with a standard deviation of $2.14. The means appear to be very close, but not the variances. At _ = .05, is there a difference in variances? Show all steps clearly, including an illustration of the decision rule. (Data are from a project by statistics students Kim Dyer, Amy Pease, and Lyndsey Smith.)
In a bumper test, three types of autos were deliberately crashed into a barrier at 5 mph, and the resulting damage (in dollars) was estimated. Five test vehicles of each type were crashed, with the results shown below. Research question: Are the mean crash damages the same for these three vehicles? Crash1
Crash Damage ($)
Goliath Varmint Weasel
1,600 1,290 1,090
760 1,400 2,100
880 1,390 1,830
1,950 1,850 1,250
1,220 950 1,920
Sixty-four students in an introductory college economics class were asked how many credits they had earned in college, and how certain they were about their choice of major. Research question: At _ = .01, is the degree of certainty independent of credits earned? Certainty
Credits Earned Very Uncertain Somewhat Certain Very Certain Row Total
0-9 12 8 3 23
10-59 8 4 10 22
60 or more 1 7 11 19
Col Total 21 19 24 64
A student team examined parked cars in four different suburban shopping malls. One hundred vehicles were examined in each location. Research question: At _ = .05, does vehicle type vary by mall location? (Data are from a project by MBA students Steve Bennett, Alicia Morais, Steve Olson, and Greg Corda.) Vehicles
Vehicle Type Somerset Oakland Great Lakes Jamestown Row Total
Car 44 49 36 64 193
Minivan 21 15 18 13 67
Full-sized Van 2 3 3 2 10
SUV 19 27 26 12 84
Truck 14 6 17 9 46
Col Total 100 100 100 100 400
High levels of cockpit noise in an aircraft can damage the hearing of pilots who are exposed to this hazard for many hours. A Boeing 727 co-pilot collected 61 noise observations using a handheld sound meter. Noise level is defined as "Low" (under 88 decibels), "Medium" (88 to 91 decibels), or "High" (92 decibels or more). There are three flight phases (Climb, Cruise, Descent). Research question: At _ = .05, is the cockpit noise level independent of flight phase? (Data are from Capt. Robert E. Hartl, retired.) Noise
Noise Level Climb Cruise Descent Row Total
Low 6 2 6 14
Medium 18 3 8 29
High 1 3 14 18
Col Total 25 8 28 61
Can people really identify their favorite brand of cola? Volunteers tasted Coca-Cola Classic, Pepsi, Diet Coke, and Diet Pepsi, with the results shown below. Research question: At _ = .05, is the correctness of the prediction different for the two types of cola drinkers? Could you identify your favorite brand in this kind of test? Since it is a 2 _ 2 table, try also a two-tailed two-sample z test for ð1 = ð2 (see Chapter 10) and verify that z2 is the same as your chi-square statistic. Which test do you prefer? Why? (Data are from Consumer Reports 56, no. 8 [August 1991], p. 519.) Cola
Correct? Regular Cola Diet Cola Row Total
Yes, got it right 7 7 14
No, got it wrong 12 20 32
Col Total 19 27 46
The solution examines hypothesis testing for Dallas fire trucks, lovastatin heart attack drug, exams grades, and concession standard purchases.