Harris, Schoen, and Hensley (1992) conducted a research study showing how cultural experience can influence memory. They presented participants with two different versions of stories. One version contained facts or elements that were consistent with a U.S. Culture and the second version contained material consistent with a Mexican culture. The results showed that the participants tended to make memory errors for the information that was not consistent with their own culture. Specifically, participants from Mexico either forgot or distorted information that was unique to U.S. Culture, and participants from the United States forgot or distorted information that was unique to Mexican culture. The following data represent results similar to those obtained by Harris, Schoen, and Hensley. Is there a significant difference between the two groups? Use a two-tailed test with a == .05.
Number of Errors Recalling the Mexican Story
Participants from Mexico n == 20 , M == 4.1 , SS == 180
Participants from the United States n == 20 , M= 6.9 , SS == 200
A) Test the homogeneity of variance assumption using the four steps
1) state hypothesis - use same alpha level as for the hypothesis test
2) define critical region
3) compute test statistic
4) make a decision
B) Do all steps in hypothesis testing for the research problem presented
Steven Schmidt (1994) conducted a series of experiments examining the effects of humor on memory. In one study, participants were given a mix of humorous and non-humorous sentences and significantly more humorous sentences were recalled. However, Schmidt argued that the humorous sentences were not necessarily easier to remember, they were simply preferred when participant had a choice between the two types of sentence. To test this argument, he switched to an independent, measures design in which one group got a set of exclusively humorous sentences and another group got a set of exclusively nonhumorous sentences. The following data are similar to the results from the independent, measures study.
4 5 2 4
6 7 6 6
2 5 4 3
3 3 5 3
6 3 5 3
3 4 2 6
4 3 4 4
5 2 6 4
Use SPSS only to calculate test statistic. Do all
in hypothesis testing. Turn in data file along with output.
People's handshakes seem to be ralted to other aspects of their personalities. For example, a firm a handshake is negatively related to shyness. To measure the magnitude of this effect, a researcher obtained a sample of n=12 people who were rated as having firm handshakes and n=8 who were rated as having weak handshakes. both groups had 50 % males and 50 % females. Each individual was given apersonality test measuring shyness. The average score for the firm handshake group was m=43 with SS=1170 and the average for the wak handshake group was M=61 with SS=990. Use the sample data to estimate how much difference there is in shyness between people with firm handshakes and people with weak handsahkes. Make a point estimate and a 95% confidence intrval estimate.
Testing of Hypotheses