# Statistics: The t-formula for independent samples

See attached file.

Please use the following numbers in the attached formula to solve the problem. All numbers are already calculated for you. Remember, Please (parentheses), Forgive (factor), My (multiplication), Dear (division), Aunt (addition), Sally (subtraction).

Please complete the following using the 5 steps of hypothesis testing for a t-test below. I have included the numbers for the necessary variables below.

Let's use the following example Lets look at the differences between those having a study group for a test and those who do not have study sessions.

Step 1: Determine the null (no difference between groups) and research/alternate hypothesis. Ha and Ho

Step 2. Find the mean, variance, and number of people in each group. Group A= Study Session Group B= No Study Session (They are provided below)

A= 24- mean, 28.5- variance, 5- number of participants

B= 18- mean, 7- variance, 5- number of participants

The t-formula for independent samples is posted below.

Complete a one directional t-test to find the t-value.

Step 3. Consult the appendix for the degrees of freedom. Since there are 2 groups we subtract the total number of participants 10-2 to get a df of 8.

Look at our appendix to find at .05 level of significance what the degrees of freedom for 8 would be.

Step 4 Compare the t value to the critical value

Step 5 Reject or accept the t-value based on step 4 and explain what you found.

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#### Solution Summary

A complete, neat and step-by-step solution including the t-formula for independent samples is provided in the attached Excel file.