To examine the continuity and discontinuity in the criminal careers of 7,453 females of low socio-economic status, Tracy and Kempf-Leonard (1996) examined whether these females were nonoffenders, one-time offenders, recidivist offenders, or chronic offenders as juveniles and whether these females became nonoffenders, one-time offenders, recidivist offenders, or chronic offenders as adults. Nonoffenders committed zero offenses, one-time offenders committed one offense, recidivist offenders committed two to four offenses, and chronic offenders committed five or more offenses. With these data, calculate the variation ratio for each type of adult offender group. Which group has the most variation? Which has the least?
See attached file for full problem description.
The solution gives step by step procedure for the calculation of variation ratio different type of adult offender group.