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Stimulants and Depressants

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Select a specific central nervous system stimulant drug and a depressant drug or substance to compare. Using the basic pharmacological principles outlined in the Lewis text, rate the level of risk associated with the use of each substance to help explain how someone abusing the drug or overcoming tolerance might be motivated to increase the availability of the drug to their brain through the route of administration. Present an argument for which drug is more dangerous to the individual, family, or community.

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Sellman (2010) emphasizes that the key to understanding drug use or abuse is that it is compulsive behavior. He cites 10 facts to understand concerning the addiction of drugs: (1) it is compulsive behavior, (2) behavior is initiated outside of consciousness, (3) addicted behavior is 50% heritable, (4) most people with drug addiction have other psychiatric problems, (5) adds chronic relapsing disorders in the ongoing life of people, (6) difference psychotherapies appear to produce similar treatment outcomes, (7) "To state come back when motivate" is no longer a sound therapeutic response, (8) more individualized treatment results in better outcomes, (9) epiphanies are difficult to manufacture, and (10) change takes time.

Examples of stimulant and a depressant drug include (1) alcohol, and (2) Cocaine.

(A) Depressants produce a relaxed euphoria that temporarily boosts self-esteem, Side effects include impairment in mental and motor functioning, and mood swing. For instance, alcohol appears as a stimulant, because it elevates moods. However, alcohol is a depressant as it depresses central nervous system activity, and bodily functions [e.g. beer, wine, distilled spirits] Pinel, 2006. Lynch, Sanchez, & Smith (2013) note that physical activity, such as exercise has the potential for a treatment for drug addiction such as alcohol. Lynn et al discuss clinical and preclinical evidence for the efficacy of exercise at different phases of the addiction process. As they point out, neurobiological mechanisms are also discussed focusing on interactions with dopaminergic (dopamine) and glutamatergic (glutamate) signaling and chromatin remodeling in the reward pathway.
Although, most exercise generally produces an efficacious response, certain exercise conditions may be either ineffective or lead to detrimental effects depending on factors such as: (a) the level/type/timing ...

Solution Summary

This solution discusses stimulants and depressants and the impact on society and the community.

See Also This Related BrainMass Solution

Drug Profile: Psychology and Physiology of Addiction

Abused substances and their various effects. Include the following:

- Explain the psychology and physiology of addiction.
- Identify specific drug substances covering the following categories: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogens, and cannabis.
- Discuss the addiction potential of various abused substances, what effects they have, and withdrawal symptoms.
- Discuss how prescription drugs can be abused and lead to addiction.

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