Explore BrainMass

Domestic Terrorism

1. Define domestic terrorism. In what ways is it functionally different from international terrorism? Also, distinguish between domestic terrorism from above vs. domestic terrorism from below. Give examples.
2. Summarize the approaches to political violence as exhibited by Mao, Guevara, Marighella, and Fanon. Which domestic terror groups from the past or present would you identify with these different approaches? Explain your position.
3. In your opinion, what were the earliest forms of terrorism in the United States? Who were the perpetrators? Who were the victims? Is your opinion the same as that contained in the Vohryzek- Bolden, et al. text? Give examples. Also, explain whether you believe these early terrorists were no better (or no worse) than modern terrorists.
4. In what ways are right wing terror groups bonded together by racism, religion, and anti- governmentalism? Also, what role does the right to bear arms under the 2nd Amendment play with these groups? How has Odinism become a part of the equation for some?
5. Describe in detail the groups Greenpeace and PETA. Are either of these terrorist organizations? What is the basis for your answer? Discuss the tactics have they used from time to time. Are any of these tactics unlawful but morally ethical?

Solution Preview

DOMESTIC Terrorism

1. Define domestic terrorism. In what ways is it functionally different from international terrorism? Also, distinguish between domestic terrorism from above vs. domestic terrorism from below. Give examples.

Domestic terrorism is a physical violence, actual or threatened, usually carried out by the citizens against any organization to create fear in order to effect some kind of political and or social change within a specific territory. It is often caused by the citizens' feeling of discontent and threat against their lives, rights and properties.

The FBI's Terrorist Research and Analytical Center defined domestic terrorism as "the unlawful use of force or violence, committed by a group(s) of two or more individuals, against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives." The USA PATRIOT Act enumerates acts of domestic terrorism as those which: "(A) involve acts dangerous to human life that are a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State; (B) appear to be intended- (i) to intimidate or coerce a civilian population; (ii) to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or (iii) to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping; and (C) occur primarily within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States." (Wikipedia)

Domestic terrorism differs from International Terrorism in that, domestic terrorism involves individuals or groups whose activities are aimed at the government's elements or populations without any foreign involvement, while International terrorism involves foreign individuals or groups and their base is usually outside the country. It may or may not involve the citizens.
Domestic terrorism may be classified as "terrorism from above" or "terrorism from below". "Terrorism from above" occurs when persons who are legally empowered, either covertly or overtly, use or threaten to use, political violence to maintain their positions of power or to maintain ,defend , overthrow , or undermine the political power of other nations within the international community. "Terrorism from below" occurs when persons use, or threaten to use, political violence either to undermine or overthrow existing governmental structures or simply to intimidate individuals
or groups which they consider as threat to the social , political ,economic and ideological order of society.

An example of terrorism from above is the divide and conquer strategy that was employed by the white wealthy landowners during the 17th century in order to prevent class revolution among the white and black slaves . In this case, the elite group devised a scheme to reorganize the American society based on class and race . An example of a group engaged in domestic terrorism from below is the Ku Klux Klan , a white supremacists group which intimidates and oppresses racial and religious minorities such as the African Americans, the Jews and the Roman Catholics. ("http: //frwebgate .access .gpo .gov /cgi-bin /getdoc .cgi ?dbname 107_cong_public_laws docid f :publ056 ...

Solution Summary

Definition and Differentiation of Domestic and international Terrorism; approaches to political violence; Earliest forms of terrorism in America; non-governmental anti - terrorism Organizations: Green Peace and PETA