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Electron Configuration Characteristics

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Compare the elements B, Al, C, and Si:
(a) Which has the most metallic character?
(b) Which has the largest atomic radius?
(c) Which has the greatest electron affinity?
(d) Place the three elements B, Al, and C in order of increasing first ionization energy.

Name the element corresponding to each characteristic below:
(a) the element with the electron configuration 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^3
(b) the Group 2 element with the smallest atomic radius
(c) the element with the largest ionization energy in Group 15
(d) the element whose 2_ ion has the configuration [Kr]4d^5
(e) the element with the greatest electron affinity in Group 17
(f) the element whose electron configuration is [Ar]3d^10 4s^2

An electron moves with a velocity of 2.5 x 10^8 cm s^-1. What is its wavelength?

Give the names of the orbitals derived by solution of the Schrodinger equation when the following values of quantum numbers have been used:
(a) n = 4, l = 2, m_l = -2
(b) n = 4, l = 2, m_l = 0
(c) n = 3, l = 0, m_l = 0
(d) n = 2, l = 1, m_l = -1
(e) n = 5, l = 3, m_l = 2

Depict with an orbital box diagram the electron configuration of ground-state gallium atoms. Give a set of quantum numbers for the highest-energy electrons.

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Solution Summary

Electron configuration characteristics are examined in the solution.The greatest electron affinity is determined.

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Ionization Energy and Electron Affinity Problems

Of the choices below, which gives the order for first ionization energies?

a. Ar > Cl > S > Si > Al
b. Cl > S > Al > Si > Ar
c. Al > Si > S > Cl > Ar
d. Cl > S > Al > Ar > Si

Which of the following has the largest second ionization energy?

a. Na
b. Si
c. Mg
d. P
e. Al

Which equation correctly represents the first ionization of aluminum?

a. Al(g) -> Al-(g) + e-
b. Al+(g) + e- -> Al(g)
c. Al(g) + e- -> Al-(g)
d. Al(g) -> Al+(g) + e-
e. Al-(g) -> Al(g) + e-

In general, as you go across a period in the periodic table from left to right: (1) the atomic radius __________; (2) the electron affinity becomes __________ negative; and (3) the first ionization energy ___________.

a. increases, increasingly, decreases
b. increases, increasingly, increases
c. decreases, decreasingly, increases
d. decreases, decreasingly, decreases
e. decreases, increasingly, increases

Which of the following correctly represents the electron affinity of bromine?

a. Br+(g) + e- -> Br(g)
b. Br2(g) + 2 e- -> 2 Br-(g)
c. Br(g) -> Br+(g) + e-
d. Br(g) + e- -> Br-(g)
e. Br2(g) + e- -> Br-(g)

Which of the following is not a characteristic of metals?

a. Ductility
b. Low ionization energies
c. Acidic oxides
d. Malleability
e. These are all characteristics of metals.

Alkali metals tend to be more reactive than alkaline earth metals because ____________.

a. alkali metals have greater electron affinities
b. alkali metals have lower melting points
c. alkali metals have lower ionization energies
d. alkali metals are not more reactive than alkaline earth metals
e. alkali metals have lower densities

Oxides of the active metals combine with water to form ____________.

a. metal hydrides
b. hydrogen gas
c. metal hydroxides
d. oxygen gas
e. water and a salt

The series that correctly lists from left to right a halogen, an alkaline earth metal, a transition metal, and an active metal is __________.

a. Br, Ba, Cr, Na
b. O, Ca, Ce, Al
c. F, Sr, Fe, Sn
d. S, Sr, Si, Sn
e. Cl, K, V, Mg

Hydrogen is unique among the elements because ____________.

1. It has only one valence electron.
2. It is the only element that can emit an atomic spectrum.
3. Its electron is not at all shielded from its nucleus.
4. It is the lightest element.
5. It is the only element to exist at room temperature as a diatomic gas.

a. 1, 2, 3, 4, & 5
b. 1, 3, & 4
c. 1, 2, 3, & 4
d. 2, 3, & 4
e. 3 & 4

Of the ions below, only _____ has a noble gas electron configuration.

a. K-
b. I+
c. O2+
d. S3-
e. C1-

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