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Properties of laser beam

What properties of a laser beam are used in:

(b)punching holes in baby bottle
(c)monitoring location of the crater of a dormant volcano by interferometry-
(d)laying straight railroad tracks-

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Laser beams are highly monochromatic (narrow wavelength band), directional, intense, coherent (meaning all the photons or waves have a constant phase relationship between them). These all make them highly desirable over all other light sources in various situations.

(a) Holography: Coherent Nature. Holographic recording makes use of the principle of interference of light. This property requires, above ...

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Properties of laser beam