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Describing aspects of the universe in terms of formation and motion

I need help with the following questions by describing the evolution of Earth, the Sun, the Moon, planets and other bodies in the universe in terms of formation and motion, by including the following:

Formation - Describe the early evolution of the Earth and its atmosphere. Describe the formation of the bodies involved and the role of motion in their formation, current state, or both. Include a description of any other bodies directly involved with their formation or motion (i.e. asteroids, comets, and planets).

Motion - Include a basic description of Copernicus', Kepler's, Galileo's, and Newton's discoveries as they relate to the motion of Earth, the Sun, the Moon, planets and other bodies in the universe.

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There are four very specific occurrences that formed the solar nebula and all of the planets within it. The first is the collapse of a cloud and formation of a gas disk which is rotating in nearly Keplerian motion around the proto-sun (Hayashi, 1981). In this condition, the rotation is occurring nearly at thermal and dynamic equilibrium under the influence of gravity and solar radiation. The second large event is the fragmentation of a thin dust layer due to gravitational instability (Hayashi, 1981). Then there was the collapse of hydrogen atmospheres onto the protoplanets that have grown to about 10 times the earth's mass (Hayashi, 1981). Lastly, there was the disappearance of the gas component of the disk (or nebula) due to solar wind and UV radiation which were expected to be very strong at the T Tauri stage of the sun (Hayashi, 1981).

Earth was formed about 4.6 billion years ago, around the same time as most of the other planets and the sun. The solar system was through to coalesce from a very large rotating cloud of gas and dust, also known as the solar nebula. The nebula collapses because of its gravity and as it spun faster flattened into a disk-like shape. This causes most of the material to be pulled towards the centre of the nebula, forming the sun (Hayashi, 1981). However, other particles within the 'disk' collided and attached to one, growing until they finally formed other bodies - planets. The reason the inner planets, including earth, are more rocky than the gaseous outer planets is because solar winds were thought to have removed most of the lighter atoms, such as helium and hydrogen, away from the center (Hayaski, 1981). This moved them towards the outer part of the nebula disk.

Terrestrial planets formed differently than the Jovian planets. After the heavier elements and minerals condensed into solid bits of rock from accretion, they all orbited the sun at about the same speed. However, collisions of objects moving at the same speed were less destructive than of those moving at different speeds. Thus, when rocks orbiting the sun moved close to ...

Solution Summary

The expert describes aspects of the universe in terms of formation and motions