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What kinds of image formats are available for putting onto the Internet? What different file formats that are available to me? What are the major advantages and disadvantages of each one?

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Here is a summary of the most common graphics file formats:
File extension Proper name Description
.adrg ARC Digitised Raster Graphics
24-bit color raster images used mainly for spatial information.
.agp ArtGem Project
AGP is a proprietary image file format developed by RL Vision for use in the paint software ArtGem. The format saves up to 16 layers of 24-bit color information with an 8-bit alpha channel.
.ai Adobe Illustrator Artwork
Vector format for Adobe Illustrator (originally a subset of PostScript, if an appropriate file header was present).

.art ART
ART is a proprietary image file format mostly used by the America Online® client software. The ART format holds a single still image that has been highly compressed. ART files are also the containers of textures and sprites on Ken Silverman's build engine.

.bmp Windows Bitmap
Commonly used by Microsoft Windows programs, and the Windows operating system itself. Lossless compression can be specified (RLE), but some programs use only uncompressed files.
.cadrg Compressed ARC Digitised Raster Graphics
24-bit color raster images used mainly for spatial information.
.cdr CorelDRAW Document Default proprietary format for Corel CorelDRAW 2-D documents. Features include multiple import/export filters, 3-D special effects and object/image layering.
.cgm Computer Graphics Metafile
Defined by ISO Standard 8632. Often used for complex engineering drawings, e.g. in the aviation industry. (CGM members)

.cin Cineon
Cineon is a subset of the ANSI/SMPTE DPX file format with fixed headers.
.cpi Cartesian Perceptual Compression
Hypercompressed format for black-and-white raster images. Typically compresses images 5-20 times smaller than corresponding TIFF or PDF versions, leading to dramatic reductions in download times and server network traffic.
.cpt Corel Photo-Paint Image Default proprietary format for Corel Photo-Paint documents. Has many extra features such as image layering. Supported by very few image editing programs other than Corel Photo-Paint. Photo-Paint Images are usually smaller than Photoshop Documents.
.dpx Digital Picture eXchange file format
DPX is an ANSI/SMPTE standard (268M-2004) similar to Cineon but with flexible and variable image headers.

.dxf ASCII Drawing Interchange
Standard ASCII text files used to store vector data for CAD programs.

.eps Encapsulated PostScript
A PostScript file that describes a small vector graphic, as opposed to a whole page or set of pages.
.emf Windows Enhanced Metafile
An enhanced version of Windows Metafile. Supported in Windows NT and later.

.exr Extended Dynamic Range ...

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