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PHIL/251

1. Isaac Asimov, the science fiction writer, said that he did not believe in flying saucers because most people did, and through the ages the masses have been invariably wrong. His statement is best explained by:
A . He is biased against the masses
B . The masses tend not to think critically
C . The masses always believe in ghosts and spacemen
D . All of the above

2. Critical thinking is a natural process, which requires no effort.
A . True
B . False

3. Logic is
A . Emotional
B . A fallacy
C . The study of correct argument
D . All of the above

4. In order to be soundly persuasive, we should mainly use precise, factually oriented language.
A . True
B . False

5. The perception process is typically outlined through the following three steps:
A . Input, output, action
B . Psychological, physiological, social
C . See, hear, act
D . Selection, organization, interpretation

6. Self-concept, expectation, emotional influences, and cognitive consistency are all types of:
A . Management styles
B . Emotional classifications
C . Personal barriers
D . Psychological traits
E . All of the above

7. We tend to stick to our first impressions, even if we are wrong.
A . True
B . False

8. Assumptions are explicit, that is openly stated, rather than implicit.
A . True
B . False

9. All zebras are striped animals.
No zebras are polar bears.
Therefore, no polar bears are striped animals.
Write True or False in the answer key

10. Existing assumptions will generate new ideas that will help expand our viewpoints.
A . True
B . False

11. Critical thinking requires the abandonment of old assumptions.
A . True
B . False

12. In evaluating situations, emotions help us to objectively weigh the evidence for all sides.
A . True
B . False

13. Our critical thinking skills are often vulnerable because of our emotions.
A. True
B. False

14. It is extremely difficult to completely avoid biases, prejudices, and stereotypes in the critical thinking process.
A . True
B . False

15. When we are being defensive, we believe the most important thing is. . .
A . To solve the issue at hand.
B . To win the argument.
C . To gain new insight.
D . To keep an open mind.

16. Which one of the following expressions is not vague?
A . It sure is different
B . His speech discussed the humor of Mark Twain.
C . This was the best game ever
D . The things we do...

17. All items made of gold are expensive items.
Some rings are items made of gold.
Therefore, some rings are expensive items.
Write True or False in the answer key

18. One of the following is not a logical conclusion indicator:
A . Consequently
B . This proves that
C . Because
D . Hence

19. The soundness of an argument refers only to the structure of an argument.
A . True
B . False

20. A hypothesis is a final, proven conclusion.
A. True
B. False

21. A group of three students must be selected from six students - K, O, S, T, V, and W - according to the following conditions:
Either K or S, or both must be selected.
Either O or V must be selected, but neither V nor S can be selected with O.
If V is not selected, which pair of students must be among those selected?
A. K and O
B . K and T
C . K and W
D . O and T
E . O and W

22. During the summer session at Coleville Community College, six different courses - art, biology, calculus, home education, English and French - are offered. There are five class periods during the day, and each course, must be offered exactly three times during the day.
Only calculus and home education will be offered during the first period. French and three other classes will be offered during the second period.
Only biology will be offered during the third period.
More courses will be offered during the fourth period than during the fifth period.

Which of the following pairs of classes must be offered during the same three periods?
A . Art and biology
B . Art and French
C . Home education and calculus
D . Home education and French
E . English and calculus

23. Not all biases, prejudices, and stereotypes are negative.
A. True
B. False

The following are examples of syllogistic arguments that are missing the conclusions. Study the two reasons very carefully and complete the syllogism with the conclusion that logically follows.

24. All fragile things are breakable things.
Some glasses are fragile things.
Therefore

25. All mammals are warm-blooded animals.
All whales are mammals.
Therefore

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