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Modus Ponens, Modus Tollens, and related fallacies

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I know the rules of modus ponens and modus pollens but am struggling with these two phrases, I need some help with these.

Madeline must have known the material for the test, because if a person knows the material, that person will get an A, and Madeline was one of the students that got an A.

Anastasia believes that if she treats people honestly and with an open mind, she will have diverse friendships. She is honest and open-minded and has friends all over the world.

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Solution Summary

Explains the reasoning patterns called Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens. Distinguishes these from closely related invalid forms or patterns of reasoning. Deals with some specific examples, showing how to identify the pattern of reasoning in each.

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