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    The Use of Labeling Theory and Criminal Justice Policies

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    After 9/11, racial profiling became a quasi-accepted method of criminal investigation that violated the civil rights of many Americans. Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans where subjected to increase use racial profiling and labeled criminal based on their national origin and religious beliefs. The USA PATRIOT Act is a policy specifically developed to eliminate strict constitutional protections guaranteed to US citizens and allowed law enforcement to use investigative techniques that would normally be considered civil rights violations based on the labeling of a particular race and religion of a person.

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    The American criminal justice system was formed on the premise that all individuals are equal under the law regardless of individual characteristics. Societal labeling and profiling has been a social phenomenon used to alert others to the perceived dangers associated with an individual, group or entire segment of the population. In terms of criminology, labeling and profiling has been a quasi-accepted and unaccepted practice of criminal justice practitioners. Consequently, labeling and profiling has been used as methods to guard against perceived criminal behaviors or minority groups. According to Kmalu, Coulson-Clark, & Kamalu (2010), racial profiling operates on the assumption that ...

    Solution Summary

    This solution discusses the use of racial profiling and labeling as a method of increasing investigative efforts of law enforcement and the development of criminal justice policy based on racial profiling and labeling after 9/11.