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future of the American jail system

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Explain what you believe is the future of the American jail system-
1) a discussion of recidivism rates from those leaving prisons and those leaving alternative sanctions
2) The alternative sanctions to incarceration that are available today and may be available in the future, this can include private corrections, etc
3) How technology may impact this discussion? Will we be able to monitor offenders in the future more safely without placing them into incarceration?

requesting help to answer the above questions and references. Thanks

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Explain what you believe is the future of the American jail system

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1) A discussion of recidivism rates from those leaving prisons and those leaving alternative sanctions

Numerous studies conducted in the past have shown that recidivism rates among those that have gone through some of alternative sanction program is less as compared to those leaving alternative sanctions. Studies on recidivism rates have proven that over 50% of individuals released from incarceration, find themselves in some form of legal trouble within 3 years.

In terms of effectiveness, Tonry (1997) concluded that community service is most appropriate for offenders who do not present unacceptable risks of future violent crimes because it costs much less than prison or jail to implement and will likely result in comparable recidivism rates.

The overall conclusion from a broad reading of the available literature is that, for reducing recidivism, treatment and rehabilitation are more likely to be successful than surveillance and enforcement. Several of the studies cited above reached thisconclusion (Gendreau et al 2000, Burke 2001, Sherman 1997, Cullen et al 1996, Gendreau & Goggin 1996, Aos 2001). Several additional publications also reinforce this conclusion (Andrews and Bonta 1994, Petersilia 1997, 1998, Gendreau 1996, Latessa and Allen 1997, Cullen and Gendreau 2000). We would expect, therefore, that community-based sanctions, especially those that involve an appropriate treatment component, should be more ...

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