# Four Methods of Mapping an area in Criminology

Four methods of mapping include the following:

Baseline mapping

Rectangular coordinate mapping

Triangulation mapping

Polar/grid coordinate mapping

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Baseline Mapping

Baseline mapping is the principal west line that divides survey townships between north and south. The baseline meets its corresponding meridian at the point of origin, or initial point, for the land survey. Often, a baseline is marked by other features such as a road or boundary between counties. The formats used are Excel Spreadsheets, Access Tables, Keyland Databases, ESRI Formats, and formatted Word Documents.

Rectangular Coordinate Mapping

Rectangular Coordinate systems use x and y axes that are perpendicular to each other. The units on each axis are the same and constant. The four main techniques of transforming rectangular coordinates include translation, scaling, rotation and warping. Translation is a simple displacement of the entire map by a certain offset distance along one or both axes. Scaling is a solution completed when assimilating maps that have the same projection but different units. Rotation is rarely required when dealing with data in known coordinate systems. Rotation is almost always necessary when geo referencing a scanned map. Warping includes all of the mathematical methods from the above three mapping techniques. This method transforms straight lines into curved one.

Triangulation mapping

Triangulation mapping is the process of determining the location of a point by measuring angles to it from known points at either end of the fixed baseline. This method is used to pinpoint the location of something by taking bearings to it from two remote points. The point can then be fixed as the third point of a triangle with one known side and two known angles.

Polar/grid coordinate mapping

The Polar Coordinate Mapping System is a two dimensional coordinate system. Each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a fixed point and an angle from a fixed direction. The Polar Coordinate Mapping System uses a point as a pole and a ray. The pole is called a fixed point and the ray from the pole is called the polar axis. That point is taken as the polar axis.

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