The constitution was a remarkable and living document, but the founding fathers pointed out some errors in protecting the individual rights of the citizens. There started a stiff debate between Federalists and anti-federalists over this issue. The anti-federalists refused to accept the constitution without a bill of rights against any excess of the state.
The Bill of Rights alone did not protect the rights of the some sections of the society. They were slaves or black people. It took years to get the freedom for the blacks through the American civil war and a series of constitutional amendments. Three amendments, 13th, 14th and 15th amendments were passed in this direction. These amendments were known as the reconstruction amendments. Thirteenth amendment abolished slavery, fourteenth Amendment guaranteed African Americans the rights of due process and equal protection of the law, and the fifteenth amendment gave the blacks the right to vote. The women were also not given the voting rights, until the 19th amendment was passed in 1920.
The Supreme Court became the watchdog for implementing the fundamental rights of the citizens. It has also has the sole right to interpret the constitution.
This solution explains about the specific amendments which guaranteed constitutional rights to some excluded citizens. The Bill of Rights did not satisfy the aspirations and dreams of the blacks and women. It took years to see some specific amendments passed by the US congress. Thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments changed the course of the history of United States. These amendments were otherwise known as the reconstruction amendments.