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GDP, Consumer price index, Unemployment rate

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Calculate GDP, Consumer price index, Unemployment rate

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Study Guide practice

Please show work for all the questions, this is my practice for the upcoming exam and I need to know the steps you take to get the answers.

Using exhibit 1
a. What is the nominal GDP in 2010?
b. What is the nominal GDP in 2011?
c. What is the real GDP in 2011 (using 2010 prices)?
d. What is the real GDP growth from 2010 to 2011?
e. What is the GDP deflator for 2011?

Exhibit 1
Apples Bananas Apples Bananas
2010 200 50 $2.00 $1.00
2011 150 30 $1.50 $1.50

Using the information on exhibit 2 calculate the consumer price index in the current year.

Exhibit 2
Product Quantity in market basket Price in base year Price in current year
Bread 10 $1.00 $1.50
Milk 5 $1.00 $2.00
Gum 50 $1.20 $1.50

Using the information on Exhibit 3
a. What is the unemployment rate?
b. What is the labor participation rate?

Exhibit 3

Civilian noninstitutional population 228,693
Civilian labor force 145,838
Employed 141,579

Suppose that the country of Lexistonia has 2 industries: computers and airplanes. Lexistonia's population is 10,000. Computers are made by Computer Wizzards, Inc from worthless junk. Lexistonia airplane assembly plant buys computers from Computer Wizzards, Inc for $30 million. These computers are installed in airplanes. The airplane assembly plant sells 50 airplanes a year. The market price of an airplane is $1,000,000.

a. Calculate Lexistonia GDP using value-added approach
b. What is Lexistonia GDP per capita?

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Solution Summary

Solution provides the steps to compute GDP, consumer price index, and the unemployment rate.

See Also This Related BrainMass Solution

Economic Indicators

How is the Economy Doing?

Required Reading:
St. Louis Federal Reserve National Economic Trends: This pdf data file illustrates national economic trends in six economic indicators for the past four years. Retrieved September 1, 2011.

Look at the charts published by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, by clicking on the first link above. The following are descriptions of each chart. You can also consult the optional resources in the background material for this module.

Real GDP Growth

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures the dollar value of all goods and services produced in the U.S. economy in one year. The Department of Commerce Bureau of Economic Analysis measures the Gross Domestic Product by adding the spending in the consumer, investment (firms), government, and foreign (exports minus imports) sectors. While the current GDP can give us a good indication of current production, we must remove the effects of inflation from current GDP to compare the current figures to GDP numbers from other years. Real GDP is the current GDP divided by the GDP price deflator. The real GDP is one of the most important indicators of economic performance. A rise in real GDP indicates economic growth, while a fall in real GDP indicates economic decline.

Consumer Price Index (CPI)

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) measures the change in the overall cost of a variety of consumer goods and services. The Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics measures the Consumer Price Index by creating a market basket of thousands of items purchased by consumers -- food, housing, clothing, transportation, medical care, recreation, education, communication, and energy. The prices of the specified products are measured each month, and the percentage change in price is reported as the Consumer Price Index. The Consumer Price Index generally increases during economic growth; during economic decline, the rate of price increase slows or prices may even decline.

Industrial Production

Industrial Production measures the output of American industry. The Federal Reserve Board of Governors measures Industrial Production by calculating the manufacturing output in the consumer goods, business equipment, construction supplies, materials, manufacturing, mining, and utility industries. Production is calculated in each sector monthly, and the percentage change in output is reported as Industrial Production. Durable goods, such as cars, appliances, and furniture, as well as construction supplies, tend to be more sensitive to economic changes than are other manufacturing products. Generally, Industrial Production increases during economic growth and falls during periods of economic decline. However, the 1999-2000 growth cycle suggests this is not always true. Interest Rates

Interest Rates

The Ten-Year Treasury Interest Rate measures the percentage return investors receive on U.S. Treasury bonds. The Federal Reserve Board of Governors measures Ten-Year Treasury Interest Rates, as determined daily in the bond market. Treasury Interest Rates can be indicative of changes in other long-term interest rates such as mortgages and long-term business loans. A decline in interest rates can precede increased investment spending to promote economic growth; high interest rates can lead to lower levels of investment and a decline in the rate of growth.

Change in Non-Farm Payrolls

The Change in Non-farm Payroll measures the number of people employed by companies and government. The Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics surveys approximately 390,000 establishments to count the number of people employed each month, and the change from the previous month in the number of employed people is reported as the Change in Non-farm Payrolls. Non-farm Payroll generally rises during economic growth and falls during economic decline.

Unemployment Rate

The Unemployment Rate measures the percentage of people in the labor force who were not working during the week of the survey, but had specifically looked for work within the previous four weeks (unless they were waiting to be recalled from layoff, in which case they need not have been looking for work to be counted as unemployed). The Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics surveys thousands of Americans each month to calculate the size of the labor force (those working plus those not working, but seeking work) and the unemployment rate (the unemployed divided by the labor force). The number of people unemployed as a percentage of the labor force is reported each month as the Unemployment Rate. The Unemployment Rate generally falls during economic growth and rises during economic decline. Use the chart above to see how the Unemployment Rate illustrates how our economy is performing. This chart was published by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.

When these indicators are analyzed in concert, the developing pattern can help to illustrate current economic performance. Periods of economic growth are often fueled by increased demand for economic products. This increased demand often causes GDP to increase, while simultaneously causing prices to go up. Firms increase their production to meet that increased demand, and often hire additional workers, increasing the payroll and reducing the unemployment rate. The increased demand for products can also result in increased demand for loans to purchase products, increasing interest rates. Recessions, on the other hand, are often fueled by a reduction in demand for goods and services. Firms reduce production in response, lowering GDP, and prices. Production cutbacks lead firms to lay off workers, increasing the unemployment rate. Reduced demand for loans can result in lower interest rates, and the Federal Reserve may further reduce interest rates in an attempt to stimulate spending in the economy.

Use the charts published by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis to see how our economy is performing and answer the following essay in a 4-5 page essay:

1. For EACH indicator, explain the following:

-current status

-change from last year

-any trends?? (i.e. falling, rising, etc.)

-What do these results and/or trends suggest for the health of the economy?

2. Imagine that you are the Chair of the President's Council of Economic Advisors. You need to prepare a briefing for the president on the status of the economy. Based on the current performance of these indicators, write a 1-2 paragraph on how the economy is generally doing based on your answer to question #1. (for instance, determine if we are experiencing growth or decline)

3. Now imagine that the President wants to know what the economy's performance will be next year at this time. Based on the current performance of these indicators, try to predict the economy's performance next year.

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