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Finance: Capital budgeting explained

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A manufacturing company is thinking of launching a new product. The company expects to sell $950,000 of the new product in the first year and $1,500,000 each year thereafter. Direct costs including labor and materials will be 55% of sales. Indirect incremental costs are estimated at $80,000 a year. The project requires a new plant that will cost a total of $1,000,000, which will be a depreciated straight line over the next 5 years. The new line will also require an additional net investment in inventory and receivables in the amount of $200,000.

Assume there is no need for additional investment in building the land for the project. The firm's marginal tax rate is 35%, and its cost of capital is 10%.

- Prepare a statement showing the incremental cash flows for this project over an 8-year period.
- Calculate the payback period (P/B) and the net present value (NPV) for the project.

- Answer the following questions based on your P/B and NPV calculations:

- Do you think the project should be accepted? Why?
- Assume the company has a P/B (payback) policy of not accepting projects with life of over 3 years.
- If the project required additional investment in land and building, how would this affect your decision? Explain.

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Solution Summary

The problem set deals with determining whether a venture is profitable by assessing the net present value and profitability of the venture.

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Finance: Lease Agreement and Capital Budgeting

At the beginning of its accounting year Alice plc leases a machine from Louise Leasing plc. The following information relates to the lease agreement:
1. The term of the lease is 5 years, and the lease agreement is non-cancellable, requiring equal rental payments of £9,276 at the beginning of each year;
2. The machine has a fair value at the inception of the lease of £40,000, an estimated economic life of 5 years, and no residual value;
3. Alice plc's incremental borrowing rate is 10% per year;
4. Alice plc depreciates similar equipment that it owns on a straight-line basis;
5. Louise Leasing plc has set the annual rental to earn a rate of return on its investment of 8% per year; this fact is known to Alice plc.

Required:

(a) Should the above lease agreement be accounted for as a finance or an operating lease? Give reasons to justify your answer.

(b) Prepare the journal entries for Alice plc that relate to the above lease agreement during years 1 and 2 for each of the following assumptions:

(i) The lease is classified as a finance lease;

The actuarial method should be used to allocate finance charges to accounting periods during the lease term.

(ii) The lease is classified as an operating lease.

(c) With reference to (b) discuss the extent to which the distinction between a finance lease and an operating lease is important for financial reporting and analysis.

2-a) Describe the factors that should be taken into consideration by firms when forming their capital structure.

2-b) Describe the "Efficient Market Hypothesis" (EMH). Explain how the "Efficient Market Hypothesis" is used to explain the stock market behaviour.

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