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positive externalities

Please assist me with the following questions relating to the Pharmaceutical Industry.
What entity is best suited to try to promote positive and discourage negative externalities?

How would this entity try to promote and discourage?

Why can't the private sector accomplish these objectives? hide problem

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Before answering the questions we need to be clear as to what is needed to take care of externalities and the following theorem due to Nobel laureate Robert Coase of University of Chicago gives the precise requirements:

"If there are zero transaction costs, the efficient outcome will occur regardless of legal entitlement.....If there are positive transaction costs, the efficient outcome MAY NOT be reachable under every choice of legal entitlement. Where this is so, THE PREFERRED LEGAL RULE IS THE ONE THAT MINIMIZES THE EFFECTS OF TRANSACTION COSTS, including both the costs themselves and their effects i.e. inefficient choices." Source: http://law.gsu.edu/wedmundson/Syllabi/Coase.htm

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Solution Summary

The best way to encourage positive externalities is discussed.