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    Describe the development of network architectures and its subsequent consolidation over the past 20 years. Include topologies and the TCP/IP, Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequence Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX), Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS), and NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) architectures.

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    By and large, the Network has evolved without the beneath of a comprehensive theory during the period of past 20 years. While traditional but fragmented mathematical tools of robust control, communication, computation, dynamical systems, and statistical physics have been applied to a number of network design problems, the Network has been the result of a mixture of good design principles and frozen accidents," similar to biology".
    The network technology has evolved tremendously over the past 20 years in all fields. Before 20 years there were more security issues in network architecture. It was very difficult in securing operating systems over the past decade to protect against these types of threats, many of which ran wild over the past two decades. However, common protection approaches to these threats often involved restricting or disabling network services, either on the end systems, or in the network itself.
    But many departments are spending billions of dollars per year to achieve network centric operations and information superiority. They have achieved a great result in having secure faster and safer network technologies. Let us discuss in detail about topologies and the evolution of different technologies over past two decades.


    Network topologies are categorized into the following basic types:

     bus topology
     ring topology
     star topology
     tree topology
     mesh topology
    Bus Topology
    Bus networks use a common backbone to connect all devices. A single cable, the backbone functions as a shared communication medium that nodes (devices) attach or tap into with an interface connector. It will connect all the nodes to a common cable. The disadvantage of this topology is if one node is failed the nodes remaining after this will also be isolated from network.

    Ring Topology
    In a ring topology, every node has exactly two neighbors for communication ...

    Solution Summary

    The solution describes the development of network architectures and its subsequent consolidation over the past 20 years. The expert includes topologies and the TCP/IP, internetwork packet exchange/sequence packet exchange (IPX/SPX), network basic input output system (NetBIOS) and netBIOS extended user interface (NETBEUI) architectures.