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    OSI reference model and TCP/IP protocol architecture

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    Details: Describe the OSI reference model and TCP/IP protocol architecture. Discuss the similarities and differences between them. What is the importance of using a layered model? Differentiate between a confirmed service and a nonconfirmed service with respect to service primitives.

    Objective: Describe protocols at the different layers of the OSI model and explain their functionality

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    The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model is a network model for layered communications. It consists of 7 layers, starting from Application layer, Presentation layer, Session layer, Transport layer, Network layer, Datalink layer, and Physical layer. That is the reason why this model is also referred to as OSI Seven Layer Model. A client and web server network is built using the OSI reference model. OSI model was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

    The application layer provides the higher-level protocols in which the user interacts with the computer and communicates over the network. The presentation layer defines the file format being sent by the server and received by the client and presents it to the application layer, like images, web pages and texts. Session layer manages the conversation between the client and the web server and ensures that the link is maintained and disconnected after the session ended. The transport layer is the one ...

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