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Rational, Natural, and Open Systems Organizational Paradigms

I am struggling in my development of a structured outline for a paper comparing and contrasting the three predominant (rational, natural, and open systems) organizational paradigms. Providing a structure and real world examples will assist in developing the paper.

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You can start the assignment with an introductory paragraph. The following content looks like a suitable introduction:

The natural, rational, and open systems perspectives function as Kuhn's paradigms, and as such are not subject themselves to verification. All three co-exist with different methodologies accepted within each and each based on different rhetoric.

There have been three attempts at trying to integrate the three perspectives:

Etzioni's structuralist model emphasizes the inevitable conflict between workers and managers and sees the rational and natural perspectives as "two sides of the same coin". Lawrence and Lorsch's contingency model notes that the rational and natural perspectives focus on entirely different organizational types that have adapted to different environments.


After definition, you can provide definition and core elements of each paradigm.

A rational system definition:

The definition of the ration system theorists consists of two features:
1 Organisations are purposeful; they are focused to the achievement of specified goals. The goals are specific, clearly defined;
2 Organisations have a high level of formalisation. A formalised structure is a structure where rules are governing behaviour and are precisely and explicitly formulated. A second characteristic of a formalised structure is that roles and role relations are prescribed independently of the personal attributes and relations of individuals occupying positions in the organisational structure. Both features are regarded as variables.

Definition Rational System perspective:
"Organisations are collectives oriented to the pursuit of relatively specific goals and are exhibiting a relatively highly formalised structure".

A natural system definition:

The natural system theorists are focusing on the behavioural structure. They recognise the organisation itself as a major asset or precious resource, instead of seeing it as only a means to attaining other ends. They put a greater emphasis on the ...

Solution Summary

Compare and contrast rational, natural, and open systems organizational paradigms