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    Globalization and Technology Transfer

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    Based on the attached articles, please respond with your opinion on how this article relates to globalization and technology transfer. If there is a technology transfer happening here, then what is it? If not then please explain your reasoning. Also, please comment if you see issues like joint ventures, or corruption or thinking out of the box issues are being addressed in each article. I don't want a lengthy answer, just one or two paras only. Please respond separately for each article, so that I can relate your response appropriately to the specific article.

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    How African cocoa-growers are moving upstream into chocolate

    FUN though it is to pretend that a magic bunny provided the chocolate in your Easter basket, it is much more likely to have been grown by smallholders in West Africa, the region that produces 70% of the world's cocoa. The crop is an important source of income for many countries--the largest producer, Côte d'Ivoire, earns over 20% of its export revenues from cocoa. But although global sales of chocolate amount to some $75 billion a year, growers capture only a tiny fraction of this: around $4 billion a year from the sale of cocoa beans.

    The money, in short, is in chocolate, not cocoa--and African farmers are not really in a position to expand into chocolate-making. Or are they? Divine Chocolate, founded in Britain in 1998, counts cocoa farmers as its biggest group of shareholders. Kuapa Kokoo, Ghana's largest co-operative, with a membership of 45,000 cocoa growers, owns 45% of Divine and has two seats on its board. The chocolate is made in Germany and sells alongside more familiar chocolate brands, "and not at a super premium price," says Sophi Tranchell, Divine's boss. The company's sales were £9m ($18m) last year, and this year Divine launched an American affiliate that ...

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    This solution explains globalization and technology transfer.