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    Produces Large Quantities of a Standardized Product

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    PROBLEM 20-3A

    Crystal Company produces large quantities of a standardized product. The following information is available for its production activities for March:
    Raw materials
    Beginning inventory $ 26,000
    Raw materials purchased (on credit) 255,000
    Direct materials used (172,000)
    Indirect materials used (81,000)
    Ending inventory $27,000

    Factory payroll
    Direct labor used $207,720
    Indirect labor used 50,000
    Total payroll cost (paid in cash) $257,720

    Factory overhead incurred
    Indirect materials used $ 81,500
    Indirect labor used 50,000
    Other overhead costs 159,308
    Total factory overhead incurred $290,808

    Factory overhead applied
    (140% of direct labor cost)
    Total factory overhead applied $290,808

    Additional information about units and costs of production activities follows.
    Units
    Beginning in process inventory 2,200
    Started 30,000
    Ending in process inventory 5,900
    Status of ending goods in process inventory
    Materials - percent complete 50%
    Labor and overhead -percent complete 65%
    Costs
    Beginning in process inventory
    Direct materials $ 3,500
    Direct labor 3,225
    Factory overhead 4,515 $11,240
    Direct materials added 172,000
    Direct labor added 207,720
    Overhead applied (140% of
    direct labor) 290,808
    Total costs $681,768
    Ending in process inventory $82,128

    During March, 25,000 units of finished goods are sold for $85 cash each. Cost information regarding finished goods follows.
    Beginning finished goods inventory $155,000
    Cost transferred in 599,640
    Cost of goods sold (612,500)
    Ending finished goods inventory $142,140

    Required

    1. Prepare journal entries dated March 31 to record the following March activities: (a) raw materials purchases, (b) direct materials usage, (c) indirect materials usage, (d) factory payroll costs, (e) direct labor costs used in production, (f) indirect labor costs, (g) other overhead costs â?" credit Other accounts, (h) overhead applied, (i) goods transferred to finished goods, (j) sale of finished goods.
    2. Prepare a process cost summary report for this company, showing costs charged to production, units cost information, equivalent units of production, cost per EUP, and its cost assignment and reconciliation.
    Analysis Component
    3. The company provides incentives to its department managers by paying monthly bonuses based on their success in controlling costs per equivalent unit of production. Assume that the production department underestimates the percentage of completion for units in ending inventory with the result that its equivalent units of production in ending inventory for March are understated. What impact does this error have on the March bonuses paid to the production managers? What impact, if any, does this error have on April bonuses?

    Book check:
    2. Cost per equivalent unit: materials $6.00; labor $7.00; overhead $9.80.

    PROBLEM 22-4A

    Teller Co. sold 20,000 units of its only product and incurred a $70,000 loss (ignoring taxes) for the current year as shown here. During a planning session for year 2010â??s activities, the production manager notes that variable costs can be reduced 50% by installing a new machine that automates several operations. To obtain these savings, the company must increase its annual fixed costs by $210,000. The maximum output capacity of the company is 40,000 units per year.

    TELLER COMPANY
    Contribution Margin Income Statement
    For Year Ended December 31, 2009
    Sales $1,000,000
    Variable costs 800,000
    Contribution margin $ 200,000
    Fixed costs 270,000
    Net loss $ (70,000)

    Required
    1. Compute the break-even point in dollar sales for year 2009.
    2. Compute the break-even point in dollar sales for year 2010 assuming the machine is installed and there is no change in unit sales price.
    3. Prepare a forecasted contribution margin income statement for 2010 that shows the expected results with the machine installed. Assume that the unit sales price and the number of units sold will not change and no income taxes.
    4. Compute the sales level required in both dollars and units to earn $210,000 of after-tax income in 2010 with the machine installed and no change in unit sales price. The income tax rate is 30%. (Hint: Use procedures in Exhibits 22.18 and 22.20.)
    5. Prepare a forecasted contribution margin income statement that shows the results at the sales level computed in part (4). Assume an income tax rate of 30%.

    Exhibits 22.18: Income relations in CVP Analysis

    Sales
    - Variable costs
    Contribution margin
    - Fixed costs
    Income (pretax)

    Book checks:
    3. Net income, $120,000
    4. Required sales, $1,300,000 or 26,000 units
    5. Net income: $210,000

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