1. Assume that Lexington Hospital has fixed costs of $10 million and a variable cost (per inpatient day) rate of $200. What will the total cost be with a volume of 50,000 patient days?
2. Consider the following data: fixed costs = $10 million, variable cost per inpatient day = $400, and revenue per inpatient day = $1,200. What is the breakeven volume (in patient days)?
3. True or False: An organization with high fixed costs (relative to variable costs) will suffer a greater decrease in profit as volume declines than will an organization with high variable costs (relative to fixed costs).
4. What is the present value of a $100 lump sum to be received in five years if the opportunity cost rate is 10 percent?
5. Oakdale Community Hospital is considering building an ambulatory surgery center. Which of the following opportunity cost rates would be most appropriate for discounting the project's future cash flows?
a. The expected rate of return on a bank CD
b. The expected rate of return on a municipal bond
c. The expected rate of return on the stock of SurgiCare Corporation, a for-profit company that operates a large number of freestanding ambulatory surgery centers
d. The expected rate of return on the stock of Skilled Healthcare Group, a for-profit company that operates a large number of nursing homes and assisted living centers
e. The expected rate of return on Medcath Corporation, a for-profit company that operates a large number of cardiac specialty hospitals
6. Assume that an outstanding seven-year bond has $1,000 par value, a coupon rate of 10 percent, and five years remaining to maturity. If the required rate of return on similar bonds of equal risk is 5 percent, the bond will sell at which of the following?
a. A premium
b. A discount
c. At par value
d. At $500 ($100 annual interest payments x 5 years to maturity)
e. The bond cannot be sold again because it is already outstanding.
8. Which of the following statements is most correct?
a. Diversifiable risk is caused by events unique to a single business.
b. Portfolio risk is caused by events unique to a single business.
c. Adding similar investments to a portfolio reduces risk more than adding randomly chosen investments does.
d. It is impossible to reduce diversifiable risk.
9. Which of the following statements concerning financial risk is false?
a. Generically, financial risk is related to the probability of a return that is less than expected.
b. If the returns on two investments move in unison (are perfectly positively correlated), combining the two into a portfolio will lower risk.
c. If the returns on two investments move in unison (are perfectly positively correlated), combining the two into a portfolio will not affect risk.
d. In the real world, it is not possible to create a riskless portfolio because all investment returns, to a greater or lesser extent, move with the overall economy.
e. Assume you know for certain that an investment will return negative 10 percent. (In other words, the probability of a negative 10 percent return is 100 percent.) Although the expected return is negative, the investment is riskless.
10. The corporate cost of capital provides a benchmark for determining a project's cost of capital. In general, projects that are riskier than average must have a cost of capital that is higher than the corporate cost of capital, while projects that are less risky than average must have a cost of capital that is less than the corporate cost of capital.
This solution includes calculations on discount models, break-even point, present value, NPV, FV, Cost Analysis, Cash Flow, Portfolios, WACC, etc. 10 true/false questions.
Financial Analysis - Time Value
I need you help with the attached problem sets.
Week 2 Problem Set Problems
Suppose that you observe the following term structure for Treasury securities:
Term to Maturity (Year) Interest Rates (%)
a. Calculate the forward rates for year 1,2,3,4, and 5.
b. Use this information to create a Yield curve graph.
c. Discuss the shape of the yield curve using the Expectation hypothesis.
d. If the real rate of interest (K*) in the economy is 3% what is the market expected inflation rate for year 1-5?
"Time to Reflect" problem complete practice problems 2-9 through 2-23 on pages 76 and 78 of your course textbook.
2-8. Annuity Payment and EAR
You want to buy a car, and a local bank will lend you $ 20,000. The loan would be fully amortized over 5 years (60 months), and the nominal interest rate would be 12%, with interest paid monthly. What would be the monthly loan payment? What would be the loans EAR?
2-9. Present and Future Values of Single Cash Flows for Different Periods
Find the following values, using the equations, and then work the problems using a financial calculator to check your answers. Disregard rounding differences. (Hint: If you are using a financial calculator, you can enter the known values and then press the appropriate key to find the unknown variable. Then, without clearing the TVM register, you can override the variable that changes by simply entering a new value for it and then pressing the key for the unknown variable to obtain the second answer. This procedure can be used in parts b and d, and in many other situations, to see how changes in input variables affect the output variable.)
a. An initial $ 500 compounded for 1 year at 6%.
b. An initial $ 500 compounded for 2 years at 6%.
c. The present value of $ 500 due in 1 year at a discount rate of 6%.
d. The present value of $ 500 due in 2 years at a discount rate of 6%.
2-10. Present and Future Values of Single Cash Flows for Different Interest Rates
Use equations and a financial calculator to find the following values. See the hint for Problem 2-9.
a. An initial $ 500 compounded for 10 years at 6%..
b. An initial $ 500 compounded for 10 years at 12%.
c. The present value of $ 500 due in 10 years at a 6% discount rate.
d. The present value of $ 500 due in 10 years at a 12% discount rate.
2- 11. Time for a Lump Sum to Double
To the closest year, how long will it take $ 200 to double if it is deposited and earns the following rates? [Notes: ( 1) See the hint for Problem 2- 9. ( 2) This problem can-not be solved exactly with some financial calculators. For example, if you enter PV 200, PMT 0, FV 400, and I 7 in an HP- 12C, and then press the N key, you will get 11 years for part a. The correct answer is 10.2448 years, which rounds to 10, but the calculator rounds up. However, the HP- 10B gives the correct answer.
2- 12. Future Value of an Annuity
Find the future value of the following annuities. The first payment in these annuities is made at the end of Year 1; that is, they are ordinary annuities. (Notes: See the hint to Problem 2- 9. Also, note that you can leave values in the TVM register, switch to BEG, press FV, and find the FV of the annuity due.)
a. $ 400 per year for 10 years at 10%.
b. $ 200 per year for 5 years at 5%.
c. $ 400 per year for 5 years at 0%.
d. Now rework parts a, b, and c assuming that payments are made at the beginning of each year; that is, they are annuities due.
2- 13. Present Value of an Annuity
Find the present value of the following ordinary annuities ( see note to Problem 2- 9):
a. $ 400 per year for 10 years at 10%.
b. $ 200 per year for 5 years at 5%.
c. $ 400 per year for 5 years at 0%.
d. Now rework parts a, b, and c assuming that payments are made at the begin-ning of each year; that is, they are annuities due.
2- 14. Uneven Cash Flow Stream
a. Find the present values of the following cash flow streams. The appropriate interest rate is 8%. (Hint: It is fairly easy to work this problem dealing with the individual cash flows. However, if you have a financial calculator, read the section of the manual that describes how to enter cash flows such as the ones in this problem. This will take a little time, but the investment will pay huge dividends throughout the course. Note, if you do work with the cash flow register, then you must enter CF0 0.)
b. What is the value of each cash flow stream at a 0% interest rate?
2- 22. Expected Rate of Return
Washington- Pacific invests $ 4 million to clear a tract of land and to set out some young pine trees. The trees will mature in 10 years, at which time Washington- Pacific plans to sell the forest at an expected price of $ 8 million. What is Washington- Pacific's expected rate of return?
2- 23. Effective Rate of Interest
A mortgage company offers to lend you $ 85,000; the loan calls for payments of $ 8,273.59 per year for 30 years. What interest rate is the mortgage company charging you?
Assume that you are nearing graduation and that you have applied for a job with a local bank. As part of the banks evaluation process, you have been asked to take an examination that covers several financial analysis techniques. The first section of the test addresses discounted cash flow analysis. See how you would do by answering the following questions.
a. Draw time lines for ( 1) a $ 100 lump sum cash flow at the end of Year 2, ( 2) an ordinary annuity of $ 100 per year for 3 years, and ( 3) an uneven cash flow stream of $ 50, $ 100, $ 75, and $ 50 at the end of Years 0 through 3.
b. ( 1) What is the future value of an initial $ 100 after 3 years if it is invested in an account paying 10% annual interest? ( 2) What is the present value of $ 100 to be received in 3 years if the appropri-ate interest rate is 10%?
c. We sometimes need to find how long it will take a sum of money ( or anything else) to grow to some specified amount. For example, if a companys sales are growing at a rate of 20% per year, how long will it take sales to double?
d. If you want an investment to double in 3 years, what interest rate must it earn? e. What is the difference between an ordinary annuity and an annuity due? What type of annuity is shown below? How would you change it to the other type of annuity?
f. ( 1) What is the future value of a 3- year ordinary annuity of $ 100 if the appro-priate interest rate is 10%? ( 2) What is the present value of the annuity? ( 3) What would the future and present values be if the annuity were an annu-ity due?
g. What is the present value of the following uneven cash flow stream? The appropriate interest rate is 10%, compounded annually.
h. (1) Define ( a) the stated, or quoted, or nominal rate ( INOM) and ( b) the peri-odic rate ( IPER).
(2) Will the future value be larger or smaller if we compound an initial amount more often than annually, for example, every 6 months, or semi-annually, holding the stated interest rate constant? Why?
(3) What is the future value of $ 100 after 5 years under 12% annual com-pounding? Semiannual compounding? Quarterly compounding? Monthly compounding? Daily compounding?
(4) What is the effective annual rate ( EFF%)? What is the EFF% for a nominal rate of 12%, compounded semiannually? Compounded quarterly? Compounded monthly? Compounded daily?
i. Will the effective annual rate ever be equal to the nominal ( quoted) rate?
j. (1) Construct an amortization schedule for a $ 1,000, 10% annual rate loan with 3 equal installments. (2) What is the annual interest expense for the borrower, and the annual interest income for the lender, during Year 2?
k. Suppose on January 1 you deposit $ 100 in an account that pays a nominal, or quoted, interest rate of 11.33463%, with interest added (compounded) daily. How much will you have in your account on October 1, or after 9 months?
l. (1) What is the value at the end of Year 3 of the following cash flow stream if the quoted interest rate is 10%, compounded semiannually?
(2) What is the PV of the same stream?
(3) Is the stream an annuity?
(4) An important rule is that you should never show a nominal rate on a time line or use it in calculations unless what condition holds? (Hint: Think of annual compounding, when INOM EFF% IPER.) What would be wrong with your answer to Questions l-(1) and l-(2) if you used the nominal rate ( 10%) rather than the periodic rate ( INOM/ 2 10%/ 2 5%)?
m. Suppose someone offered to sell you a note calling for the payment of $ 1,000 fifteen months from today. They offer to sell it to you for $ 850. You have $ 850 in a bank time deposit that pays a 6.76649% nominal rate with daily compounding, which is a 7% effective annual interest rate, and you plan to leave the money in the bank unless you buy the note. The note is not risky you are sure it will be paid on schedule. Should you buy the note? Check the decision in three ways: (1) by comparing your future value if you buy the note versus leaving your money in the bank, (2) by comparing the PV of the note with your current bank account, and (3) by comparing the EFF% on the note versus that of the bank account.