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Numerous terms and their role in finance

Please help me to define the following terms and identify their role in finance
a. Finance
b. Efficient Market
c. Primary Market
d. Secondary Market
e. Risk
f. Security
g. Stock
h. Bond
i. Capital
j. Debt
k. Yield
l. Rate of Return
m. Return on Investment
n. Cash Flow


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a. Finance: The field of finance refers to the concepts of time, money and risk and how they are interrelated. The term "finance" may thus incorporate any of the following:
The study of money and other assets
The management and control of those assets
Profiling and managing project risks
The science of managing money
The industry that delivers financial services
As a verb, "to finance" is to provide funds for business or for an individual's large purchases (car, home, etc.).

b. Efficient Market:In finance, the efficient-market hypothesis (EMH) asserts that financial markets are "informationally efficient", or that prices on traded assets, e.g., stocks, bonds, or property, already reflect all known information. The efficient-market hypothesis states that it is impossible to consistently outperform the market by using any information that the market already knows, except through luck. Information or news in the EMH is defined as anything that may affect prices that is unknowable in the present and thus appears randomly in the future.

The EMH was developed by Professor Eugene Fama at the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business as an academic concept of study through his published Ph.D. thesis in the early 1960s at the same school.

c. Primary Market: The primary is that part of the capital markets that deals with the issuance of new securities. Companies, governments or public sector institutions can obtain funding through the sale of a new stock or bond issue. This is typically done through a syndicate of securities dealers. The process of selling new issues to investors is called underwriting. In the case of a new stock issue, this sale is an initial public offering (IPO). Dealers earn a commission that is built into the price of the security offering, though it can be found in the prospectus.

d. Secondary Market:The secondary market is the financial market for trading of securities that have already been issued in an initial private or public offering.Alternatively, secondary market can refer to the market for any kind of ...

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